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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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Aquifex aeolicus VF5 Pathway: isoleucine biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Synonyms: superpathway of isoleucine biosynthesis

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Amino Acids Biosynthesis Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis Isoleucine Biosynthesis
Superpathways

Pathway Summary from MetaCyc:
General Background

L-isoleucine is almost always synthesized from 2-oxobutanoate. In the most common pathway, 2-oxobutanoate is generated from L-aspartate via L-threonine (this pathway). The key enzyme in this pathway is threonine deaminase, encoded by the ilvA gene.

In addition to the standard pathway, microorganisms have developed several alternative pathways for L-isoleucine biosynthesis. 2-oxobutanoate can be synthesized from L-glutamate via (2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate (see isoleucine biosynthesis III) [Phillips72], from pyruvate (see isoleucine biosynthesis II) [Vollbrecht74, Charon74, Xu04b], and by carboxylation of propanoate (see isoleucine biosynthesis IV) [Buchanan69, Sauer75, Eikmanns83]). In addition, there are several reports that some anaerobic bacteria can carboxylate 2-methylbutanoate to L-isoleucine via (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (see isoleucine biosynthesis V) [Robinson69, Monticello84, Allison84].

Subpathways: isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) , threonine biosynthesis from homoserine , homoserine biosynthesis , aspartate biosynthesis

Credits:
Created in MetaCyc 03-Mar-2005 by Caspi R , SRI International
Imported from MetaCyc 08-Aug-2014 by Subhraveti P , SRI International


References

Allison84: Allison MJ, Baetz AL, Wiegel J (1984). "Alternative pathways for biosynthesis of leucine and other amino acids in Bacteroides ruminicola and Bacteroides fragilis." Appl Environ Microbiol 48(6);1111-7. PMID: 6440485

Buchanan69: Buchanan BB (1969). "Role of ferredoxin in the synthesis of alpha-ketobutyrate from propionyl coenzyme A and carbon dioxide by enzymes from photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic bacteria." J Biol Chem 244(15);4218-23. PMID: 5800441

Charon74: Charon NW, Johnson RC, Peterson D (1974). "Amino acid biosynthesis in the spirochete Leptospira: evidence for a novel pathway of isoleucine biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 117(1);203-11. PMID: 4808901

Eikmanns83: Eikmanns, B., Jaenchen, R., Thauer, R. K. (1983). "Propionate assimilation by methanogenic bacteria." Arch. Microbiol. 136:106-110.

Monticello84: Monticello DJ, Hadioetomo RS, Costilow RN (1984). "Isoleucine synthesis by Clostridium sporogenes from propionate or alpha-methylbutyrate." J Gen Microbiol 130(2);309-18. PMID: 6726176

Phillips72: Phillips AT, Nuss JI, Moosic J, Foshay C (1972). "Alternate pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 109(2);714-9. PMID: 4550817

Robinson69: Robinson IM, Allison MJ (1969). "Isoleucine biosynthesis from 2-methylbutyric acid by anaerobic bacteria from the rumen." J Bacteriol 97(3);1220-6. PMID: 5813342

Sauer75: Sauer FD, Erfle JD, Mahadevan S (1975). "Amino acid biosynthesis in mixed rumen cultures." Biochem J 150(3);357-72. PMID: 1212197

Vollbrecht74: Vollbrecht D (1974). "Three pathways of isoleucine biosynthesis in mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 362(2);382-9. PMID: 4607875

Xu04b: Xu, H., Zhang, Y., Guo, X., Ren, S., Staempfli, A.A., Chiao, J., Jiang, W., Zhao, G. (2004). "Isoleucine biosynthesis in Leptospira interrogans serotype lai strain 56601 proceeds via a threonine-independent pathway." J. Bacteriol. 186(16):5400-5409. PMID: 15292141

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."


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Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Dec 18, 2014, BIOCYC13A.