Caulobacter crescentus CB15 Pathway: glutamine biosynthesis I
Inferred by computational analysis

Pathway diagram: glutamine biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Synonyms: glutamine - glutamate pathway

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-glutamine Biosynthesis
Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationInorganic Nutrients MetabolismNitrogen Compounds MetabolismAmmonia Assimilation

Pathway Summary from MetaCyc:
General background

The amino acid glutamine is a constituent of proteins and a nitrogen donor for many biosynthetic reactions, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, glucosamime and carbamoyl phosphate. The biosynthesis of glutamine is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism found in all domains of life. Phylogenetic analysis of glutamine synthetase genes has suggested that they are among the oldest functioning genes in the history of evolution [Kumada93]. In microorganisms and plants, glutamine synthetase (also known as GS) has a role in ammonia assimilation in combination with glutamate synthase (glutamine: α-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, or GOGAT) as indicated by the pathway links and pathways ammonia assimilation cycle III and superpathway of ammonia assimilation (plants)). This is known as the GS/GOGAT pathway [Gottschalk86].

About this pathway

Three types of glutamine synthetases have been described, differing in number of subunits. The active site residues of all three types are conserved.

Glutamine synthetase type I is found mostly in bacteria and archaea, including Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Typhimurium (reviewed in [Stadtman01]). It is a well-studied homododecamer built from two back-to-back hexameric rings.

Glutamine synthetase type II is found mostly in eukaryotes and some soil bacteria, but it has also been described in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei [MartinezEspinos06, Llorca06]. It is a homooctamer.

Glutamine synthetase type III has been described in anaerobic bacteria (such as Ruminococcus albus 8) and cyanobacteria, and is generally a homohexamer [Amaya05].

Superpathways: ammonia assimilation cycle III

Pathway Evidence Glyph:

Pathway evidence glyph

This organism is in the expected taxonomic range for this pathway.

Key to pathway glyph edge colors:

  An enzyme catalyzing this reaction is present in this organism
  The reaction is unique to this pathway in MetaCyc

Created 31-Jul-1995 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 11-Apr-2007 by Fulcher CA, SRI International
Last-Curated 27-Jun-2007 by SRI International


Amaya05: Amaya KR, Kocherginskaya SA, Mackie RI, Cann IK (2005). "Biochemical and mutational analysis of glutamine synthetase type III from the rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus albus 8." J Bacteriol 187(21);7481-91. PMID: 16237031

Gottschalk86: Gottschalk, G "Bacterial Metabolism, Second Edition." Springer-Verlag, New York. 1986.

Kumada93: Kumada Y, Benson DR, Hillemann D, Hosted TJ, Rochefort DA, Thompson CJ, Wohlleben W, Tateno Y (1993). "Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(7);3009-13. PMID: 8096645

Llorca06: Llorca O, Betti M, Gonzalez JM, Valencia A, Marquez AJ, Valpuesta JM (2006). "The three-dimensional structure of an eukaryotic glutamine synthetase: functional implications of its oligomeric structure." J Struct Biol 156(3);469-79. PMID: 16884924

MartinezEspinos06: Martinez-Espinosa RM, Esclapez J, Bautista V, Bonete MJ (2006). "An octameric prokaryotic glutamine synthetase from the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei." FEMS Microbiol Lett 264(1);110-6. PMID: 17020556

Stadtman01: Stadtman ER (2001). "The story of glutamine synthetase regulation." J Biol Chem 276(48);44357-64. PMID: 11585846

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Wed May 4, 2016, biocyc14.