Caulobacter crescentus CB15 Pathway: aromatic compounds degradation via β-ketoadipate
Inferred by computational analysis

Pathway diagram: aromatic compounds degradation via beta-ketoadipate

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Synonyms: β-ketoadipate pathway

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAromatic Compounds DegradationCatechol Degradation

Pathway Summary from MetaCyc:
The intermediate role of 3-oxoadipate in the oxidative metabolism of aromatic compounds by bacteria was first suggested by Kilby, who reported its accumulation in cultures of Moraxella growing on phenol [Kilby48]. This observation was confirmed by the demonstration that cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas putida, induced by growth on aromatic precursors, can convert both catechol or protocatechuate to 3-oxoadipate [Stanier50].

The pathway is widely distributed among bacteria [Stanier73]. It consists of two parallel branches for the dissimilation of protocatechuate and catechol. While the enzymes of the pathway from different microorganisms share common ancestry [Patel73, Parke73, Patel74a], many different gene organizations and forms of regulation have evolved [Parales92].

Subpathways: catechol degradation to β-ketoadipate, 3-oxoadipate degradation, protocatechuate degradation II (ortho-cleavage pathway)

Variants: catechol degradation III (ortho-cleavage pathway)

Created in MetaCyc 13-Dec-2006 by SRI International
Imported from MetaCyc 18-Sep-2013 by Fulcher CA, SRI International


Kilby48: Kilby, B. A., (1948). "The bacterial oxidation of phenol to β-ketoadipic acid." Biochem. J., 43, Proc. Biochem. Soc., v.

Parales92: Parales RE, Harwood CS (1992). "Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketoadipate: succinyl-coenzyme A transferase in Pseudomonas putida." J Bacteriol 174(14);4657-66. PMID: 1624453

Parke73: Parke D, Meagher RB, Ornston LN (1973). "Relationships among enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. 3. Properties of crystalline gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida." Biochemistry 12(18);3537-42. PMID: 4199896

Patel73: Patel RN, Meagher RB, Ornston LN (1973). "Relationships among enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. II. Properties of crystalline beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate-lactonizing enzyme from Pseudomonas putida." Biochemistry 12(18);3531-7. PMID: 4199895

Patel74a: Patel RN, Meagher RB, Ornston LN (1974). "Relationships among enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. IV. Muconolactone isomerase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas putida." J Biol Chem 249(23);7410-9. PMID: 4215816

Stanier50: Stanier, R.Y., Sleeper, B.P., Tsuchida, M., MacDonald, D.L. (1950). "The bacterial oxidation of aromatic compounds; III. The enzymatic oxidation of catechol and protocatechuic acid to beta-ketoadipic acid." J Bacteriol 59(2): 137-151. PMID: 15421941

Stanier73: Stanier RY, Ornston LN (1973). "The beta-ketoadipate pathway." Adv Microb Physiol 9(0);89-151. PMID: 4599397

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Lim02: Lim EK, Doucet CJ, Li Y, Elias L, Worrall D, Spencer SP, Ross J, Bowles DJ (2002). "The activity of Arabidopsis glycosyltransferases toward salicylic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and other benzoates." J Biol Chem 277(1);586-92. PMID: 11641410

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