If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: glutaminyl-tRNAgln biosynthesis via transamidation
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Glutamine Biosynthesis|
|Biosynthesis → Aminoacyl-tRNA Charging|
Pathway Summary from MetaCyc:
The production of L-glutaminyl-tRNAgln can occur in two different ways. In Gram-negative bacteria and in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, there are separate tRNA synthetases for charging tRNAgln with L-glutamine and tRNAGlu with L-glutamate (see tRNA charging). However, Gram-positive bacteria (such as Bacillus subtilis), archaea and the chloroplasts and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells lack a synthetase for charging tRNAgln with L-glutamine (although in some protists and fungi, it is imported from the cytosol into mitochondria). This results in a misacylation of tRNAgln with L-glutamate by a nondiscriminating glutamyl-tRNAGlx synthetase. A second enzyme, glutamyl-tRNAGln amidotransferase, is used to transamidate the misacylated L-glutamyl-tRNAGln to L-glutaminyl-tRNAgln. In [Curnow97] and in [Pujol08]).
Other tRNA-dependent amino acid transformations have been reported for asparaginyl-tRNA, selenocysteinyl-tRNA and formylmethionyl-tRNA (reviewed in [Ibba97]).
Variants: glutamine biosynthesis I
Pathway Evidence Glyph:
Key to pathway glyph edge colors:
An enzyme catalyzing this reaction is present in this organism
No enzyme catalyzing this reaction has been identified in this organism
The reaction and any enzyme that catalyzes it (if one has been identified) is unique to this pathway
Curnow97: Curnow AW, Hong K, Yuan R, Kim S, Martins O, Winkler W, Henkin TM, Soll D (1997). "Glu-tRNAGln amidotransferase: a novel heterotrimeric enzyme required for correct decoding of glutamine codons during translation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(22);11819-26. PMID: 9342321
Pujol08: Pujol C, Bailly M, Kern D, Marechal-Drouard L, Becker H, Duchene AM (2008). "Dual-targeted tRNA-dependent amidotransferase ensures both mitochondrial and chloroplastic Gln-tRNAGln synthesis in plants." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(17);6481-5. PMID: 18441100
©2014 SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025-3493