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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: acetate

Synonyms: acetic acid, ethanoic acid

Superclasses: an acid all carboxy acids a carboxylate a monocarboxylate

Component of: sodium acetate

Chemical Formula: C2H3O2

Molecular Weight: 59.044 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 60.0211293726 Daltons

SMILES: CC([O-])=O

InChI: InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)/p-1

InChIKey: InChIKey=QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Unification Links: CAS:64-19-7 , CAS:71-50-1 , ChEBI:30089 , ChemSpider:170 , DrugBank:DB03166 , HMDB:HMDB00042 , IAF1260:33590 , KEGG:C00033 , MetaboLights:MTBLC30089 , PubChem:175

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -88.27

Reactions known to consume the compound:

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

citrate lyase activation :
[a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate + ATP → an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + AMP + diphosphate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

anhydromuropeptides recycling , N-acetylglucosamine degradation I :
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O → D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetate

chitobiose degradation :
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + H2O → N-monoacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + acetate

citrate lyase activation :
an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + 6 H2O → [a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + 6 acetate

lipid IVA biosynthesis :
UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + H2O → UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)-α-D-glucosamine + acetate

ornithine biosynthesis :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + H2O → L-ornithine + acetate

pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer , pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer :
pyruvate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

Not in pathways:
citrate → acetate + oxaloacetate
acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → acetate + NADPH + 2 H+
an acetic ester + H2O → an alcohol + acetate + H+
an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + citrate → a citryl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate


a carboxylic ester + H2O → an alcohol + a carboxylate + H+
an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADPH + 2 H+
an acyl phosphate + H2O → a carboxylate + phosphate + H+
an acyl-CoA + H2O → a carboxylate + coenzyme A + H+
a 1-lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O → a carboxylate + sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , mixed acid fermentation :
acetate + ATP ↔ acetyl phosphate + ADP

acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) :
acetoacetate + acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + acetate

cysteine biosynthesis I :
O-acetyl-L-serine + hydrogen sulfide ↔ L-cysteine + acetate + H+

Not in pathways:
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetate ↔ a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + acetyl-CoA

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O = partially N-deacetylated poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + acetate + H+
an O-acetyl-ADP-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose + H2O = N-monoacetylchitobiose + acetate
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
regulator of RpoS + acetyl phosphate = RssB-P + acetate


an aldehyde[periplasmic space] + FAD[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] = a carboxylate[periplasmic space] + FADH2[periplasmic space]

In Transport reactions:
acetate[periplasmic space]acetate[cytosol] ,
acetate[cytosol]acetate[periplasmic space] ,
acetate[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space]acetate[cytosol] + H+[cytosol]

In Redox half-reactions:
acetate[in] + CO2[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e- → pyruvate[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes inhibited by acetate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase [Chaudhuri86] , acetylornithine deacetylase [Comment 1] , N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Souza97] , cyanase [Little87, Comment 2]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [Alexander87] , α-dehydro-β-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase [Fish66]

In Growth Media: AB medium with 0.4% acetate , PMA carbon source test + acetate , E.coli minimal growth on acetate (example)


References

Alexander87: Alexander K, Volini M (1987). "Properties of an Escherichia coli rhodanese." J Biol Chem 262(14);6595-604. PMID: 3553189

Chaudhuri86: Chaudhuri S, Lambert JM, McColl LA, Coggins JR (1986). "Purification and characterization of 3-dehydroquinase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1986;239(3);699-704. PMID: 2950851

Fish66: Fish D, Blumenthal H "2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase." Meth Enz 1966;9:529-534.

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Little87: Little RM, Anderson PM (1987). "Structural properties of cyanase. Denaturation, renaturation, and role of sulfhydryls and oligomeric structure in catalytic activity." J Biol Chem 1987;262(21);10120-6. PMID: 3301828

Souza97: Souza JM, Plumbridge JA, Calcagno ML (1997). "N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase from Escherichia coli: purification and molecular and kinetic characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;340(2);338-46. PMID: 9143339


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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