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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: acetate

Synonyms: acetic acid, ethanoic acid

Superclasses: an acidall carboxy acidsa carboxylatea monocarboxylate
an acidall carboxy acidsa carboxylatea short-chain carboxylate

Component of: sodium acetate

Chemical Formula: C2H3O2

Molecular Weight: 59.044 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 60.0211293726 Daltons

acetate compound structure


InChI: InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)/p-1


Unification Links: CAS:64-19-7, CAS:71-50-1, ChEBI:30089, ChemSpider:170, DrugBank:DB03166, HMDB:HMDB00042, IAF1260:33590, KEGG:C00033, MetaboLights:MTBLC30089, PubChem:175

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -88.27

Reactions known to consume the compound:

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

citrate lyase activation :
[a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate + ATP → an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + AMP + diphosphate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

anhydromuropeptides recycling , N-acetylglucosamine degradation I :
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O → D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetate

chitobiose degradation :
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + H2O → N-monoacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + acetate

citrate degradation :
citrate + an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + H+ → a citryl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate

citrate lyase activation :
an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + H2O → [a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate + H+

L-ornithine biosynthesis I :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + H2O → L-ornithine + acetate

lipid IVA biosynthesis :
UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + H2O → UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)-α-D-glucosamine + acetate

pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer , pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer :
pyruvate + a ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

Not in pathways:
citrate → acetate + oxaloacetate
acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → acetate + NADPH + 2 H+
an acetic ester + H2O → an alcohol + acetate + H+

Not in pathways:
a carboxylic ester + H2O → an alcohol + a carboxylate + H+
an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADPH + 2 H+
an acyl phosphate + H2O → a carboxylate + phosphate + H+
an acyl-CoA + H2O → a carboxylate + coenzyme A + H+
a 1-acyl 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine + H2O → a carboxylate + sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , mixed acid fermentation :
acetate + ATP ↔ acetyl phosphate + ADP

acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) :
acetoacetate + acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + acetate

L-cysteine biosynthesis I :
O-acetyl-L-serine + hydrogen sulfide ↔ L-cysteine + acetate + H+

Not in pathways:
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetate ↔ a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + acetyl-CoA

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O = partially N-deacetylated poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + acetate + H+
an O-acetyl-ADP-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose + H2O = N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-D-glucosamine + acetate
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
regulator of RpoS + acetyl phosphate = RssB-P + acetate

Not in pathways:
a 2-acyl 1-lyso-phosphatidylcholine + H2O = a carboxylate + sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+
an aldehyde[periplasm] + FAD[periplasm] + H2O[periplasm] = a carboxylate[periplasm] + FADH2[periplasm]

In Transport reactions:
acetate[periplasm] + H+[periplasm]acetate[cytosol] + H+[cytosol],
a short-chain carboxylate[periplasm]a short-chain carboxylate[extracellular space]

In Redox half-reactions:
acetate[in] + CO2[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → pyruvate[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes inhibited by acetate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase [Chaudhuri86], acetylornithine deacetylase [Comment 1], N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Souza97], cyanase [Little87, Comment 2] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [Alexander87], α-dehydro-β-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase [Fish66]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: propionate kinase, propionyl-CoA:succinate CoA transferase

In Growth Media: AB medium with 0.4% acetate, PMA carbon source test + acetate, E.coli minimal growth on acetate (example)


Alexander87: Alexander K, Volini M (1987). "Properties of an Escherichia coli rhodanese." J Biol Chem 262(14);6595-604. PMID: 3553189

Chaudhuri86: Chaudhuri S, Lambert JM, McColl LA, Coggins JR (1986). "Purification and characterization of 3-dehydroquinase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1986;239(3);699-704. PMID: 2950851

Fish66: Fish D, Blumenthal H "2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase." Meth Enz 1966;9:529-534.

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Little87: Little RM, Anderson PM (1987). "Structural properties of cyanase. Denaturation, renaturation, and role of sulfhydryls and oligomeric structure in catalytic activity." J Biol Chem 1987;262(21);10120-6. PMID: 3301828

Souza97: Souza JM, Plumbridge JA, Calcagno ML (1997). "N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase from Escherichia coli: purification and molecular and kinetic characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;340(2);338-46. PMID: 9143339

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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