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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: ammonium

Synonyms: NH4+

Superclasses: an ion a cation an inorganic cation a monovalent inorganic cation
an ion an inorganic ion an inorganic cation a monovalent inorganic cation

Component of:
ammonium heptamolybdate
diammonium phosphate
monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate
ammonium molybdate
ammonium sulfate
ammonium chloride

Chemical Formula: H4N

Molecular Weight: 18.038 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 18.0343741336 Daltons

ammonium compound structure

SMILES: [NH4+]

InChI: InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3/p+1

InChIKey: InChIKey=QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-O

Unification Links: CAS:14798-03-9 , ChEBI:28938 , ChemSpider:218 , HMDB:HMDB41827 , IAF1260:33515 , KEGG:C01342 , MetaboLights:MTBLC28938 , PubChem:223

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): 0.0

Reactions known to consume the compound:

L-asparagine biosynthesis II :
L-aspartate + ammonium + ATP → L-asparagine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

L-glutamine biosynthesis I , Nitrogen Regulation Two-Component System :
ammonium + L-glutamate + ATP → L-glutamine + ADP + phosphate + H+

NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) :
ammonium + ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide → AMP + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+

preQ0 biosynthesis :
7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine + ammonium + ATP → preQ0 + ADP + phosphate + H+ + H2O

Not in pathways:
a 2-thiouridine34 in tRNA + a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + ammonium + GTP + H2O → a 5-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine in tRNA + a 7,8-dihydrofolate + GDP + phosphate
XMP + ammonium + ATP → GMP + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
2 ATP + hydrogen carbonate + ammonium → 2 ADP + carbamoyl-phosphate + phosphate + 2 H+
ATP + UTP + ammonium → ADP + CTP + phosphate + 2 H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

adenine and adenosine salvage III , adenine and adenosine salvage V , adenosine nucleotides degradation II , purine ribonucleosides degradation :
adenosine + H+ + H2O → ammonium + inosine

allantoin degradation IV (anaerobic) :
ammonium + CO2 + ATP ← carbamoyl-phosphate + ADP + 2 H+

allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing) :
S-ureidoglycine + H2O → S-ureidoglycolate + ammonium
allantoate + 2 H+ + H2O → S-ureidoglycine + ammonium + CO2

cyanate degradation :
carbamate + 2 H+ammonium + CO2

D-serine degradation , L-cysteine degradation II , L-serine degradation , L-tryptophan degradation II (via pyruvate) :
2-iminopropanoate + H+ + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium

ethanolamine utilization :
ethanolamine → ammonium + acetaldehyde

flavin biosynthesis I (bacteria and plants) :
2,5-diamino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one + H+ + H2O → 5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)uracil + ammonium

formate to nitrite electron transfer :
nitrite[periplasmic space] + 3 a menaquinol[inner membrane] + 2 H+[periplasmic space]ammonium[periplasmic space] + 3 a menaquinone[inner membrane] + 2 H2O[periplasmic space]

guanosine nucleotides degradation III :
guanine + H+ + H2O → ammonium + xanthine

L-alanine degradation I :
D-alanine + an electron-transfer quinone[inner membrane] + H2O → ammonium + pyruvate + an electron-transfer quinol[inner membrane]

L-arginine degradation II (AST pathway) :
N2-succinyl-L-arginine + 2 H+ + 2 H2O → 2 ammonium + N2-succinyl-L-ornithine + CO2

L-asparagine degradation I , superpathway of L-aspartate and L-asparagine biosynthesis :
L-asparagine + H2O → L-aspartate + ammonium

L-glutamine degradation I :
L-glutamine + H2O → L-glutamate + ammonium

L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) , L-threonine degradation I :
2-iminobutanoate + H+ + H2O → 2-oxobutanoate + ammonium

L-threonine degradation III (to methylglyoxal) :
aminoacetone[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] + oxygen[periplasmic space] → methylglyoxal[periplasmic space] + ammonium[periplasmic space] + hydrogen peroxide[periplasmic space]

N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis :
glycine + a tetrahydrofolate + NAD+ → a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + ammonium + CO2 + NADH

NAD salvage pathway I :
β-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + H2O → ammonium + β-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide
nicotinamide + H2O → ammonium + nicotinate

phenylethylamine degradation I :
2-phenylethylamine[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] + oxygen[periplasmic space] → phenylacetaldehyde[periplasmic space] + ammonium[periplasmic space] + hydrogen peroxide[periplasmic space]

preQ0 biosynthesis :
6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + H+ → 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine + ammonium

purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation I :
2'-deoxyadenosine + H+ + H2O → ammonium + 2'-deoxyinosine

putrescine degradation II :
γ-glutamyl-L-putrescine + H2O + oxygen → 4-(γ-glutamylamino)butanal + hydrogen peroxide + ammonium

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage I :
pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + oxygen + H2O → ammonium + hydrogen peroxide + pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides degradation , salvage pathways of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides :
2'-deoxycytidine + H+ + H2O → 2'-deoxyuridine + ammonium

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

glycine cleavage :
a [glycine-cleavage complex H protein] N6-aminomethyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + a tetrahydrofolate ↔ a [glycine-cleavage complex H protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + ammonium

L-glutamate biosynthesis III :
L-glutamate + NADP+ + H2O ↔ ammonium + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+

L-glutamate degradation II :
L-aspartate ↔ ammonium + fumarate

N-acetylglucosamine degradation I :
α-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O ↔ ammonium + β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate

Not in pathways:
ammonia + H+ammonium

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
D-serine = pyruvate + ammonium
L-tryptophan + H2O = ammonium + indole + pyruvate
pyrazinamide + H2O = ammonium + pyrazine-2-carboxylate

In Transport reactions:
ammonium[periplasmic space]ammonium[cytosol]

In Redox half-reactions:
nitrite[out] + 8 H+[out] + 6 e-[membrane]ammonium[out] + 2 H2O[out] ,
a 2-oxo carboxylate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → a D-amino acid[in] + H2O[in] ,
pyruvate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → D-alanine[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes activated by ammonium, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase [Anderson77, Trotta74]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: fructose bisphosphate aldolase [Blom96] , UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase [Kawamura79] , UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase [Dhalla95, Comment 1] , guanylate kinase [Oeschger66] , RNase D exonuclease [Ghosh78] , tryptophanase [Tokushige89, HogbergRaibaud75, Comment 2] , thiamin kinase [Iwashima72] , malate dehydrogenase [Sanwal69, Spina70] , IMP dehydrogenase [Kerr00, Comment 3] , thiamin monophosphate kinase [Nishino72] , glycerol dehydrogenase [Tang79, Comment 4] , 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine-forming methyltransferase [Hagervall87]

Enzymes inhibited by ammonium, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Helmward89, Hegeman70] , dTMP kinase [Helmward89]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: guanosine-5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase , ribonuclease

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase , pantothenate synthetase , folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase

In Growth Media: PMA carbon source test + ser , PMA carbon source test + N-acetylneuraminate , PMA carbon source test + D-mannose , PMA carbon source test + D-fructose , MOPS medium with 2% glycerol , M63 medium with 2% glycerol , MOPS medium with 2% glucose , MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose , MOPS medium base , Neidhardt EZ rich defined medium , PMA carbon source test + putrescine , Davis and Mingioli glucose minimal medium , Davis and Mingioli medium A , trace metal solution , PMA sulfur source test + 3-sulfinoalanine , PMA carbon source test + citramalate , AB medium with 0.4% acetate , AB medium with 0.2% glucose , M63 medium with 2% glucose , M9 medium with 2% glycerol , M9 medium with 1% glycerol , M9 medium with 0.4% glucose , LB enriched , PMA carbon source test + methyl-β -D-glucoside , M9 medium base , PMA carbon source test + 3-hydroxybutanoate , PMA carbon source test + 2-hydroxybutyrate , ATCC medium 57 , PMA carbon source test + Tween 80 , PMA carbon source test + Tween 40 , PMA carbon source test + Tween 20 , PMA carbon source test + trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline , PMA carbon source test + gelatin , PMA carbon source test + L-galactono-1,4-lactone , PMA carbon source test + α-hydroxyglutarate-γ-lactone , PMA carbon source test + melezitose , PMA carbon source test + D-ribono-1,4-lactone , PMA carbon source test + salicylate , PMA carbon source test + methyl-α-D-galactopyranoside , PMA carbon source test + methyl D-lactate , PMA carbon source test + bromosuccinate , PMA carbon source test + gly-asp , PMA carbon source test + turanose , PMA carbon source test + ala-gly , PMA carbon source test + diacetyl , PMA carbon source test + lactitol , PMA sulfur source test + gly-met , PMA sulfur source test + cysteinylglycine , PMA phosphorus source test + 1D-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 3-phospho-D-glycerate , PMA phosphorus source test + 2-phospho-D-glycerate , PMA phosphorus source test + cyclic-AMP , PMA phosphorus source test + 3'-adenosine monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphinate , PMA sulfur source test + 4-aminobenzenesulfonate , PMA sulfur source test + ethionine , PMA sulfur source test + sulfolane , PMA sulfur source test + methanesulfonate , PMA sulfur source test + isethionate , PMA sulfur source test + 1-butanesulfonate , PMA sulfur source test + hypotaurine , PMA sulfur source test + taurine , PMA sulfur source test + taurocholate , PMA sulfur source test + lipoamide , PMA sulfur source test + 1-thio-β-D-glucose , PMA sulfur source test + thiourea , PMA sulfur source test + djenkolate , PMA sulfur source test + L-Methionine sulfone , PMA sulfur source test + L-methionine S-oxide , PMA sulfur source test + N-acetyl-DL-methionine , PMA sulfur source test + D-methionine , PMA sulfur source test + met , PMA sulfur source test + glutathione , PMA sulfur source test + lanthionine , PMA sulfur source test + L-cystathionine , PMA sulfur source test + S-methyl-L-cysteine , PMA sulfur source test + N-acetyl-L-cysteine , PMA sulfur source test + cysteamine , PMA sulfur source test + (R)-cysteate , PMA sulfur source test + D-cysteine , PMA sulfur source test + cys , PMA sulfur source test + dithiophosphate , PMA sulfur source test + thiophosphate , PMA sulfur source test + tetrathionate , PMA sulfur source test + thiosulfate , PMA sulfur source test + sulfate , PMA phosphorus source test + thymidine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + dTMP , PMA phosphorus source test + thymidine 3'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + methylenediphosphonate , PMA phosphorus source test + 2-aminoethylphosphonate , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphonoacetate , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoryl-ethanolamine , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoryl-choline , PMA phosphorus source test + creatine-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-L-tyrosine , PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-D-tyrosine , PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 2'3'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + UMP , PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 3'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 2'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + L-threonine O-3-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 3-phospho-L-serine , PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-D-serine , PMA phosphorus source test + N-phospho-L-arginine , PMA phosphorus source test + cysteamine S-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + D-mannose 6-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 3',5'-cyclic CMP , PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + CMP , PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine-3'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine 2'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 6-phospho-D-gluconate , PMA phosphorus source test + D-glucosamine-6-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + D-glucose-6-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + 2-phosphoglycolate , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoenolpyruvate , PMA phosphorus source test + cyclic-GMP , PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + GMP , PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 3'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 2'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + carbamoyl-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + glycerol 2-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + sn-glycerol-3-phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + dithiophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + thiophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + adenosine 2'3'-cyclic monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + AMP , PMA phosphorus source test + adenosine 2'-monophosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + triethyl phosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + PPPi , PMA phosphorus source test + trimetaphosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + diphosphate , PMA phosphorus source test + phosphate , PMA carbon source test + acetoin , PMA carbon source test + (R,R)-2,3-butanediol , PMA carbon source test + dihydroxyacetone , PMA carbon source test + 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-aminoethanol , PMA carbon source test + sec-butylamine , PMA carbon source test + a D,L-carnitine , PMA carbon source test + val , PMA carbon source test + 5-oxoproline , PMA carbon source test + phe , PMA carbon source test + L-ornithine , PMA carbon source test + met , PMA carbon source test + lys , PMA carbon source test + leu , PMA carbon source test + ile , PMA carbon source test + L-homoserine , PMA carbon source test + his , PMA carbon source test + gly , PMA carbon source test + arg , PMA carbon source test + N-acetyl-L-glutamate , PMA carbon source test + L-alanine amide , PMA carbon source test + acetamide , PMA carbon source test + L-tartrate , PMA carbon source test + D-tartrate , PMA carbon source test + succinamate , PMA carbon source test + sorbate , PMA carbon source test + sebacate , PMA carbon source test + L-quinate , PMA carbon source test + 3-oxalomalate , PMA carbon source test + oxalate , PMA carbon source test + melibionate , PMA carbon source test + malonate , PMA carbon source test + 5-dehydro-D-gluconate , PMA carbon source test + itaconate , PMA carbon source test + 2-ketopentanoate , PMA carbon source test + 4-hydroxybutyrate , PMA carbon source test + 4-hydroxybenzoate , PMA carbon source test + D-glucosamine , PMA carbon source test + citraconate , PMA carbon source test + hexanoate , PMA carbon source test + caprate , PMA carbon source test + 2-butanoate , PMA carbon source test + 5-aminopentanoate , PMA carbon source test + 4-aminobutyrate , PMA carbon source test + N-acetyl -D- glucosaminitol , PMA carbon source test + D-xylitol , PMA carbon source test + D-tagatose , PMA carbon source test + stachyose , PMA carbon source test + L-sorbose , PMA carbon source test + sedoheptulose anhydride , PMA carbon source test + salicin , PMA carbon source test + raffinose , PMA carbon source test + palatinose , PMA carbon source test + 1-O-methyl-β-D-xylopyranose , PMA carbon source test + methyl α-D-mannopyranoside , PMA carbon source test + 1-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronate , PMA carbon source test + 3-O-methyl-d-glucose , PMA carbon source test + methyl-β-D-galactoside , PMA carbon source test + methyl α-D-glucoside , PMA carbon source test + maltitol , PMA carbon source test + L-glucose , PMA carbon source test + β-gentiobiose , PMA carbon source test + 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose , PMA carbon source test + D-fucose , PMA carbon source test + erythritol , PMA carbon source test + 2'-deoxyribose , PMA carbon source test + hydroquinone-O-β-D-glucopyranoside , PMA carbon source test + L-arabitol , PMA carbon source test + D-arabitol , PMA carbon source test + D-arabinose , PMA carbon source test + (R)-amygdalin , PMA carbon source test + D-allose , PMA carbon source test + an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine , PMA carbon source test + a pectin , PMA carbon source test + a mannan , PMA carbon source test + a laminaran , PMA carbon source test + an inulin , PMA carbon source test + glycogen , PMA carbon source test + a dextrin , PMA carbon source test + γ-cyclodextrin , PMA carbon source test + β-cyclodextrin , PMA carbon source test + α-cyclodextrin , PMA carbon source test + chondroitin sulfate C , PMA carbon source test + ethanolamine , PMA carbon source test + 2-phenylethylamine , PMA carbon source test + D-galacturonate , PMA carbon source test + pyruvate , PMA carbon source test + glucuronamide , PMA carbon source test + β-L-lyxopyranose , PMA carbon source test + D-psicose , PMA carbon source test + tyramine , PMA carbon source test + 3-hydroxyphenylacetate , PMA carbon source test + 4-hydroxyphenylacetate , PMA carbon source test + glycylproline , PMA carbon source test + (S)-malate , PMA carbon source test + (R)-malate , PMA carbon source test + methyl pyruvate , PMA carbon source test + mono-methyl hydrogen succinate , PMA carbon source test + N-acetyl-D-mannosamine , PMA carbon source test + acetoacetate , PMA carbon source test + ala , PMA carbon source test + thr , PMA carbon source test + propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate , PMA carbon source test + glycyl-L-glutamate , PMA carbon source test + inosine , PMA carbon source test + cellobiose , PMA carbon source test + glyoxylate , PMA carbon source test + glycolate , PMA carbon source test + D-galactarate , PMA carbon source test + propionate , PMA carbon source test + fumarate , PMA carbon source test + D-threonine , PMA carbon source test + myo-inositol , PMA carbon source test + citrate , PMA carbon source test + adenosine , PMA carbon source test + deoxyadenosine , PMA carbon source test + maltotriose , PMA carbon source test + D-ribitol , PMA carbon source test + D-fructose-6-phosphate , PMA carbon source test + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate , PMA carbon source test + meso-tartrate , PMA carbon source test + gln , PMA carbon source test + uridine , PMA carbon source test + sucrose , PMA carbon source test + lactulose , PMA carbon source test + lactose , PMA carbon source test + 2-oxobutanoate , PMA carbon source test + 2-oxoglutarate , PMA carbon source test + L-1,2-propanediol , PMA carbon source test + glucosaminate , PMA carbon source test + D-aspartate , PMA carbon source test + asn , PMA carbon source test + thymidine , PMA carbon source test + melibiose , PMA carbon source test + maltose , PMA carbon source test + α-D-glucose , PMA carbon source test + acetate , PMA carbon source test + L-rhamnose , PMA carbon source test + D-ribose , PMA carbon source test + (RS)-malate , PMA carbon source test + D-galactono-1,4-lactone , PMA carbon source test + D-glucose-6-phosphate , PMA carbon source test + glt , PMA carbon source test + D-mannitol , PMA carbon source test + formate , PMA carbon source test + (S)-lactate , PMA carbon source test + D-xylose , PMA carbon source test + sn-glycerol-3-phosphate , PMA carbon source test + D-gluconate , PMA carbon source test + D-glucuronate , PMA carbon source test + L-fucose , PMA carbon source test + glycerol , PMA carbon source test + D-sorbitol , PMA carbon source test + D-serine , PMA carbon source test + D-galactitol , PMA carbon source test + trehalose , PMA carbon source test + D-alanine , PMA carbon source test + pro , PMA carbon source test + asp , PMA carbon source test + D-galactose , PMA carbon source test + succinate , PMA carbon source test + D-glucarate , PMA carbon source test + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine , PMA carbon source test + L-arabinose , Bochner defined minimal medium without phosphorous , Bochner defined minimal medium without sulfur , Bochner defined minimal medium without carbon , Bochner defined minimal medium , Davis and Mingioli Modified medium , M56 medium , AB medium base , M63 medium base


References

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Anwar79: Anwar RA, Vlaovic M (1979). "Purification of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase from Escherichia coli by affinity chromatography, its subunit structure and the absence of flavin as the prosthetic group." Can J Biochem 1979;57(2);188-96. PMID: 36973

Blom96: Blom NS, Tetreault S, Coulombe R, Sygusch J (1996). "Novel active site in Escherichia coli fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase." Nat Struct Biol 3(10);856-62. PMID: 8836102

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Mon Aug 31, 2015, biocyc14.