Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: Ca2+

Synonyms: Ca+2, Ca++, calcium ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of:
calcium hydrogenphosphate
calcium chloride dihydrate
calcium pantothenate
calcium nitrate tetrahydrate
calcium chloride

Chemical Formula: Ca

Molecular Weight: 40.08 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 39.9625912 Daltons

SMILES: [Ca++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Ca/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:29108, ChemSpider:266, HMDB:HMDB00464, IAF1260:33764, KEGG:C00076, MetaboLights:MTBLC29108, PubChem:271

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): 0.0

In Transport reactions:
an ion[periplasm]an ion[extracellular space]

Enzymes activated by Ca2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Chen09a, Henrich93], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [Goldie80a, Sudom03], adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], glutaminase B [Prusiner76], pyruvate kinase [Boiteux83, Comment 1], D-mannonate oxidoreductase [Portalier72a], GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase [Sturla97]

Enzymes inhibited by Ca2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase [Bower89, Willemoes97], inorganic pyrophosphatase [Avaeva00] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: dihydrofolate reductase [Baccanari75], lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase [Qian14], UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase [Bartling08], acetoacetyl-[acp] reductase [Price04], inorganic triphosphatase [Kohn12], RNase I endoribonuclease [Loskot78], adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [Mechold06], deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], diacylglycerol kinase [Walsh92], 2-methylisocitrate lyase [Brock01], isocitrate lyase, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase [Ray80a], pyruvate kinase [Speranza89, Comment 2], acid phosphatase / phosphotransferase [Thaller97], RNase I endoribonuclease [Loskot78], adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [Hochstadt78a], hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [Hochstadt78], phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase [Hirabayashi76], glycerol dehydrogenase [Tang79], phosphodiesterase, c-di-GMP-specific [Schmidt05], adenylate cyclase [Yang83, Comment 3]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: DNA endonuclease, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-transporting), uridine nucleosidase, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase, acyl-CoA thioesterase, lysophospholipase, lipid kinase, α-amylase, aldose sugar dehydrogenase, glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase, periplasmic

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase, heme O synthase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, dihydroneopterin triphosphate 2'-epimerase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP), NMN adenylyltransferase, phenylhydantoinase

Inhibits: CheY-Pasp + H2O → CheY + phosphate [Comment 4]

In Growth Media: MOPS medium with 2% glycerol, MOPS medium with 2% glucose, MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose, MOPS medium base, Neidhardt EZ rich defined medium, trace metal solution, AB medium with 0.4% acetate, AB medium with 0.2% glucose, LB enriched, ATCC medium 57, M56 medium, AB medium base


Avaeva00: Avaeva SM, Vorobyeva NN, Kurilova SA, Nazarova TI, Polyakov KM, Rodina EV, Samygina VR (2000). "Mechanism of Ca2+-induced inhibition of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase." Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000;65(3);373-87. PMID: 10739481

Baccanari75: Baccanari D, Phillips A, Smith S, Sinski D, Burchall J (1975). "Purification and properties of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase." Biochemistry 1975;14(24);5267-73. PMID: 46

Bartling08: Bartling CM, Raetz CR (2008). "Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis." Biochemistry 47(19);5290-302. PMID: 18422345

Boiteux83: Boiteux A, Markus M, Plesser T, Hess B, Malcovati M (1983). "Analysis of progress curves. Interaction of pyruvate kinase from Escherichia coli with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and calcium ions." Biochem J 1983;211(3);631-40. PMID: 6349612

Bower89: Bower SG, Harlow KW, Switzer RL, Hove-Jensen B (1989). "Characterization of the Escherichia coli prsA1-encoded mutant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase identifies a divalent cation-nucleotide binding site." J Biol Chem 1989;264(17);10287-91. PMID: 2542328

Brock01: Brock M, Darley D, Textor S, Buckel W (2001). "2-Methylisocitrate lyases from the bacterium Escherichia coli and the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans: characterization and comparison of both enzymes." Eur J Biochem 268(12);3577-86. PMID: 11422389

Chen09a: Chen HL, Chang CT, Lin LL, Li TY, Lo HF (2009). "The dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli novablue: overproduction and molecular characterization of the recombinant enzyme." World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 25(2);323-330.

Goldie80a: Goldie AH, Sanwal BD (1980). "Allosteric control by calcium and mechanism of desensitization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1980;255(4);1399-405. PMID: 6986370

HammerJespersen70: Hammer-Jespersen K, Munch-Petersen A (1970). "Phosphodeoxyribomutase from Escherichia coli. Purification and some properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;17(3);397-407. PMID: 4992818

Henrich93: Henrich B, Becker S, Schroeder U, Plapp R (1993). "dcp gene of Escherichia coli: cloning, sequencing, transcript mapping, and characterization of the gene product." J Bacteriol 175(22);7290-300. PMID: 8226676

Hirabayashi76: Hirabayashi T, Larson TJ, Dowhan W (1976). "Membrane-associated phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification by substrate affinity chromatography on cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol sepharose." Biochemistry 1976;15(24);5205-11. PMID: 793612

Hochstadt78: Hochstadt J (1978). "Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from enteric bacteria." Methods Enzymol 1978;51;549-58. PMID: 692401

Hochstadt78a: Hochstadt J (1978). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1978;51;558-67. PMID: 357906

Kohn12: Kohn G, Delvaux D, Lakaye B, Servais AC, Scholer G, Fillet M, Elias B, Derochette JM, Crommen J, Wins P, Bettendorff L (2012). "High inorganic triphosphatase activities in bacteria and Mammalian cells: identification of the enzymes involved." PLoS One 7(9);e43879. PMID: 22984449

Loskot78: Loskot F, Bauer U (1978). "[Treatment of ventricular extrasystole with mexiletine and Neo-gilurytmal in myocardial infarct patients]." Adv Clin Pharmacol 16;75-80. PMID: 80103

Lu07: Lu ZJ, Markham GD (2007). "Metal ion activation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase reflects cation charge density." Biochemistry 46(27);8172-80. PMID: 17567041

Lukat90: Lukat GS, Stock AM, Stock JB (1990). "Divalent metal ion binding to the CheY protein and its significance to phosphotransfer in bacterial chemotaxis." Biochemistry 1990;29(23);5436-42. PMID: 2201404

Mechold06: Mechold U, Ogryzko V, Ngo S, Danchin A (2006). "Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells." Nucleic Acids Res 34(8);2364-73. PMID: 16682444

Portalier72a: Portalier RC, Stoeber FR (1972). "[D-mannonate: NAD oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli K12. Purification, properties and specificity]." Eur J Biochem 1972;26(2);290-300. PMID: 4402996

Price04: Price AC, Zhang YM, Rock CO, White SW (2004). "Cofactor-induced conformational rearrangements establish a catalytically competent active site and a proton relay conduit in FabG." Structure 12(3);417-28. PMID: 15016358

Prusiner76: Prusiner S, Stadtman ER (1976). "Regulation of glutaminase B in Escherichia coli. III. Control by nucleotides and divalent cations." J Biol Chem 1976;251(11);3463-9. PMID: 776970

Qian14: Qian J, Garrett TA, Raetz CR (2014). "In vitro assembly of the outer core of the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium." Biochemistry 53(8);1250-62. PMID: 24479701

Ray80a: Ray PH, Benedict CD (1980). "Purification and characterization of specific 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli B." J Bacteriol 1980;142(1);60-8. PMID: 6246070

Schmidt05: Schmidt AJ, Ryjenkov DA, Gomelsky M (2005). "The Ubiquitous Protein Domain EAL Is a Cyclic Diguanylate-Specific Phosphodiesterase: Enzymatically Active and Inactive EAL Domains." J Bacteriol 187(14);4774-81. PMID: 15995192

Speranza89: Speranza ML, Valentini G, Iadarola P, Stoppini M, Malcovati M, Ferri G (1989). "Primary structure of three peptides at the catalytic and allosteric sites of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated pyruvate kinase from Escherichia coli." Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 1989;370(3);211-6. PMID: 2653362

Sturla97: Sturla L, Bisso A, Zanardi D, Benatti U, De Flora A, Tonetti M (1997). "Expression, purification and characterization of GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 1997;412(1);126-30. PMID: 9257704

Sudom03: Sudom A, Walters R, Pastushok L, Goldie D, Prasad L, Delbaere LT, Goldie H (2003). "Mechanisms of activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Escherichia coli by Ca2+ and of desensitization by trypsin." J Bacteriol 185(14);4233-42. PMID: 12837799

Tang79: Tang CT, Ruch FE, Lin CC (1979). "Purification and properties of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenase that serves an Escherichia coli mutant for glycerol catabolism." J Bacteriol 1979;140(1);182-7. PMID: 40950

Thaller97: Thaller MC, Schippa S, Bonci A, Cresti S, Rossolini GM (1997). "Identification of the gene (aphA) encoding the class B acid phosphatase/phosphotransferase of Escherichia coli MG1655 and characterization of its product." FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997;146(2);191-8. PMID: 9011040

Walsh92: Walsh JP, Bell RM (1992). "Diacylglycerol kinase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1992;209;153-62. PMID: 1323028

Willemoes97: Willemoes M, Hove-Jensen B (1997). "Binding of divalent magnesium by Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase." Biochemistry 36(16);5078-83. PMID: 9125530

Yang83: Yang JK, Epstein W (1983). "Purification and characterization of adenylate cyclase from Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 1983;258(6);3750-8. PMID: 6300054

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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