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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: diphosphate

Synonyms: PPi, PP, pyrophosphate

Superclasses: an ion an anion an inorganic phosphorus-containing ion an inorganic phosphate a polyphosphate

Chemical Formula: HO7P2

Molecular Weight: 174.95 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 177.9432255031 Daltons

SMILES: O=P(O)(OP([O-])([O-])=O)[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/H4O7P2/c1-8(2,3)7-9(4,5)6/h(H2,1,2,3)(H2,4,5,6)/p-3

InChIKey: InChIKey=XPPKVPWEQAFLFU-UHFFFAOYSA-K

Unification Links: CAS:2466-09-3 , ChEBI:29888 , ChemSpider:996 , DrugBank:DB04160 , HMDB:HMDB00250 , IAF1260:33511 , KEGG:C00013 , MetaboLights:MTBLC33019 , PubChem:1023

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -480.93

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Not in pathways:
diphosphate + H2O → 2 phosphate + H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I :
ATP + 2-succinylbenzoate + coenzyme A → AMP + 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyryl-CoA + diphosphate

2-methylcitrate cycle I :
propanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → propanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I , 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II , superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis :
5-phospho-β-D-ribosylamine + L-glutamate + diphosphate ← 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + L-glutamine + H2O

6-hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate biosynthesis I :
7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate + H2O → 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-phosphate + diphosphate + H+

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

adenine and adenosine salvage II :
AMP + diphosphate ← 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + adenine

adenine and adenosine salvage III :
IMP + diphosphate ← 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + hypoxanthine

adenosylcobalamin salvage from cobinamide I :
adenosyl-cobinamide phosphate + GTP + H+ → adenosylcobinamide-GDP + diphosphate

ADP-L-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose biosynthesis :
D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose 1-phosphate + ATP + H+ → ADP-D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose + diphosphate

anhydromuropeptides recycling , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I :
N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + UTP + H+ → UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + diphosphate

arginine biosynthesis I (via L-ornithine) :
L-aspartate + L-citrulline + ATP → L-arginino-succinate + AMP + diphosphate + H+

asparagine biosynthesis I :
L-glutamine + L-aspartate + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + L-asparagine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

asparagine biosynthesis II :
L-aspartate + ammonium + ATP → L-asparagine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

biotin-carboxyl carrier protein assembly :
a [biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein monomer] + biotin + ATP → a biotinylated [BCCP monomer] + AMP + diphosphate

CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I , CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II :
CTP + a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + H+ → a CDP-diacylglycerol + diphosphate

citrate lyase activation :
2'-(5''-triphospho-α-D-ribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA + [an apo citrate-lyase acyl-carrier protein] → [a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + diphosphate
[a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate + ATP → an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + AMP + diphosphate

CMP-KDO biosynthesis I :
3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate + CTP → CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate + diphosphate

coenzyme A biosynthesis I :
4'-phosphopantetheine + ATP + H+ → 3'-dephospho-CoA + diphosphate
(R)-4'-phosphopantothenate + L-cysteine + CTP → CMP + R-4'-phosphopantothenoyl-L-cysteine + diphosphate + H+

cytidylyl molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis :
MoO2-molybdopterin cofactor + CTP + H+ → cytidylyl molybdenum cofactor + diphosphate

demethylmenaquinol-8 biosynthesis I :
all-trans-octaprenyl diphosphate + 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate + H+ → CO2 + demethylmenaquinol-8 + diphosphate

enterobactin biosynthesis :
6 ATP + 3 L-serine + 3 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate → 6 AMP + enterobactin + 6 diphosphate + 3 H+

fatty acid β-oxidation I :
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + AMP + diphosphate

flavin biosynthesis I (bacteria and plants) :
GTP + 3 H2O → 2,5-diamino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one + formate + diphosphate + 2 H+
ATP + FMN + H+ → FAD + diphosphate

galactose degradation I (Leloir pathway) , UDP-glucose biosynthesis :
α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + UTP + H+ → UDP-α-D-glucose + diphosphate

GDP-mannose biosynthesis :
α-D-mannose 1-phosphate + GTP + H+ → GDP-α-D-mannose + diphosphate

glycogen biosynthesis I (from ADP-D-Glucose) :
α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + ATP + H+ → ADP-α-D-glucose + diphosphate

guanine and guanosine salvage :
GMP + diphosphate ← guanine + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate

guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis :
L-glutamine + XMP + ATP + H2O → L-glutamate + GMP + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+

guanylyl molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis :
MoO2-molybdopterin cofactor + GTP + H+ → guanylyl molybdenum cofactor + diphosphate

histidine biosynthesis :
1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)-ATP + H2O → 1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)-AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+

L-carnitine degradation I :
L-carnitine + ATP + coenzyme A → L-carnitinyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation II :
a [lipoyl-carrier protein]-L-lysine + octanoate + ATP → a [lipoyl-carrier protein] N6-octanoyl-L-lysine + AMP + diphosphate + H+

lipoate salvage I :
ATP + (R)-lipoate + H+ → lipoyl-adenylate + diphosphate

methylerythritol phosphate pathway I :
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate + CTP + H+ → 4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol + diphosphate

methylphosphonate degradation I :
α-D-ribose-1-methylphosphonate-5-triphosphate + H2O → α-D-ribose-1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate + diphosphate + H+

molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis :
ATP + molybdopterin + H+ → molybdopterin adenine dinucleotide + diphosphate
GTP → cyclic pyranopterin phosphate + diphosphate
a small subunit of molybdopterin synthase + ATP → a carboxy-adenylated small subunit of molybdopterin synthase + diphosphate

NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) :
ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + L-glutamine + H2O → AMP + L-glutamate + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+
ATP + β-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + H+ → nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + diphosphate
ammonium + ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide → AMP + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+
β-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + CO2 + diphosphate ← 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + quinolinate + 2 H+

NAD salvage pathway I :
ATP + nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + L-glutamine + H2O → AMP + L-glutamate + NAD+ + diphosphate + H+
ATP + β-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + H+ → nicotinate adenine dinucleotide + diphosphate
nicotinate + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + ATP + H2O → β-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + ADP + diphosphate + phosphate

NAD salvage pathway III :
β-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + ATP + H+ → NAD+ + diphosphate

Nitrogen Regulation Two-Component System :
GlnK + UTP → uridylyl-[GlnK] + diphosphate
a PII protein + UTP → a uridylylated PII protein + diphosphate
[a glutamine synthase] + ATP → adenylyl-[glutamine synthase] + diphosphate

octaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis :
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + 5 isopentenyl diphosphate → all-trans-octaprenyl diphosphate + 5 diphosphate

phenylacetate degradation I (aerobic) :
phenylacetate + ATP + coenzyme A → phenylacetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

phosphopantothenate biosynthesis I :
β-alanine + (R)-pantoate + ATP → (R)-pantothenate + AMP + diphosphate + H+

ppGpp biosynthesis :
pppGpp + H2O → GTP + diphosphate + H+
ppGpp + H2O → GDP + diphosphate + H+

pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I , pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II , superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis (E. coli) :
dUTP + H2O → dUMP + diphosphate + H+

pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides dephosphorylation :
dUTP + H2O → dUMP + diphosphate + H+
dCTP + H2O → dCMP + diphosphate + H+
5-hydroxy-CTP + H2O → 5-hydroxy-CMP + diphosphate + H+

pyrimidine nucleobases salvage I , salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides :
UMP + diphosphate ← 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + uracil

S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesis :
ATP + L-methionine + H2O → S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phosphate + diphosphate

selenocysteine biosynthesis I (bacteria) :
tRNAsec + L-serine + ATP + H+ → L-seryl-tRNAsec + AMP + diphosphate

sulfate activation for sulfonation :
sulfate + ATP + H+ → adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate + diphosphate

tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis :
4-aminobenzoate + (2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl diphosphate → 7,8-dihydropteroate + diphosphate

tetrapyrrole biosynthesis I (from glutamate) :
tRNAGlu + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlu + AMP + diphosphate

thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis I (E. coli) :
2-[(2R,5Z)-(2-carboxy-4-methylthiazol-5(2H)-ylidene]ethyl phosphate + 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphomethylpyrimidine + 2 H+ → thiamin phosphate + CO2 + diphosphate

thiamin salvage II :
4-methyl-5-(2-phosphonooxyethyl)thiazole + 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphomethylpyrimidine + H+ → thiamin phosphate + diphosphate

thiazole biosynthesis I (E. coli) :
a ThiS sulfur-carrier protein + ATP + H+ → a carboxy-adenylated-[ThiS sulfur-carrier protein] + diphosphate

trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis :
dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate → geranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate → (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + diphosphate

tRNA charging :
tRNAphe + L-phenylalanine + ATP + H+ → L-phenylalanyl-tRNAphe + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAleu + L-leucine + ATP + H+ → L-leucyl-tRNAleu + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAasn + L-asparagine + ATP + H+ → L-asparaginyl-tRNAasn + AMP + diphosphate
L-lysine + tRNAlys + ATP + H+ → L-lysyl-tRNAlys + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAgln + L-glutamine + ATP + H+ → L-glutaminyl-tRNAgln + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAasp + L-aspartate + ATP + H+ → L-aspartyl-tRNAasp + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAala + L-alanine + ATP + H+ → L-alanyl-tRNAala + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAser + L-serine + ATP + H+ → L-seryl-tRNAser + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAhis + L-histidine + ATP + H+ → L-histidyl-tRNAhis + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAtyr + L-tyrosine + ATP + H+ → L-tyrosyl-tRNAtyr + AMP + diphosphate
tRNApro + L-proline + ATP + H+ → L-prolyl-tRNApro + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAile + L-isoleucine + ATP + H+ → L-isoleucyl-tRNAile + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAgly + glycine + ATP + H+ → glycyl-tRNAgly + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAcys + L-cysteine + ATP + H+ → L-cysteinyl-tRNAcys + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAthr + L-threonine + ATP + H+ → L-threonyl-tRNAthr + AMP + diphosphate
L-tryptophan + tRNAtrp + ATP + H+ → L-tryptophanyl-tRNAtrp + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAval + L-valine + ATP + H+ → L-valyl-tRNAval + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAGlu + L-glutamate + ATP + H+ → L-glutamyl-tRNAGlu + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAmet + L-methionine + ATP + H+ → L-methionyl-tRNAmet + AMP + diphosphate
tRNAarg + L-arginine + ATP + H+ → L-arginyl-tRNAarg + AMP + diphosphate

tryptophan biosynthesis :
N-(5-phosphoribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate ← anthranilate + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate

ubiquinol-8 biosynthesis (prokaryotic) :
all-trans-octaprenyl diphosphate + 4-hydroxybenzoate → 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate + diphosphate

xanthine and xanthosine salvage :
XMP + diphosphate ← xanthine + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate

Not in pathways:
ATP → cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
an RNA 3'-terminal-phosphate + ATP → an RNA terminal-2',3'-cyclic-phosphate + AMP + diphosphate
dITP + H2O → dIMP + diphosphate + H+
XTP + H2O → XMP + diphosphate + H+
dTTP + H2O → dTMP + diphosphate + H+
ATP + ADP + H+ → 5',5'''-diadenosine triphosphate + diphosphate
2 GTP → cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate + 2 diphosphate
an mRNA + H2O → a 5'-phospho-[mRNA] + diphosphate
carbamoyl-phosphate + ATP + HypE → HypE-S-carboxamide + AMP + diphosphate + phosphate
ITP + H2O → IMP + diphosphate + H+
dATP + H2O → dAMP + diphosphate + H+
a tRNA precursor + 2 CTP + ATP → a tRNA containing a 3' CCA end + 3 diphosphate
a 5'-phosphopolynucleotide + ATP → a 5' adenylylated polynucleotide + diphosphate
a nucleoside triphosphate + H2O → a nucleoside 5'-monophosphate + diphosphate + H+
8-oxo-dGTP + H2O → 8-oxo-dGMP + diphosphate + H+
dGTP + H2O → dGMP + diphosphate + H+
ATP + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate + H+ → 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-AMP + diphosphate
an RNA terminal-2',3'-cyclic-phosphate + a 5'-hydroxyl terminated RNA + GTP → a ligated RNA + GMP + diphosphate
CTP + H2O → CMP + diphosphate + H+
CTP + a 2,3,4-saturated L-phosphatidate + H+ → a CDP-2,3,4-saturated-diacylglycerol + diphosphate
octanoate + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + ATP → an octanoyl-[acp] + AMP + diphosphate
ATP + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + a fatty acid → AMP + a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-[acp] + diphosphate
a cytidine34 in tRNAIle2 + L-lysine + ATP → a lysidine34 in tRNAIle2 + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + ATP + L-glutamate → glutamyl-queuosine at position 34 of a tRNAAsp + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
8-oxo-GTP + H2O → 8-oxo-GMP + diphosphate + H+
2-hydroxy-dATP + H2O → 2-hydroxy-dAMP + diphosphate + H+
a [protein chain elongation factor EF-P]-L-lysine34 + D-β-lysine + ATP → [a protein chain elongation factor EF-P]-β-L-lysyl-L-lysine34 + AMP + diphosphate + H+
XMP + ammonium + ATP → GMP + AMP + diphosphate + 2 H+
UTP + H2O → UMP + diphosphate + H+
m7GTP + H2O → N7-methylguanosine 5'-phosphate + diphosphate + H+
PPPi + H2O → phosphate + diphosphate
a 3' half-tRNA molecule with a hydroxyl on its 5' end + a 3' half-tRNA molecule with a hydroxyl on its 5' end + ATP → a ligated tRNA + AMP + diphosphate
a tRNA uridine34 + a [TusE sulfur carrier protein]-S-sulfanylcysteine + ATP + H+ → a tRNA 2-thiouridine34 + a [TusE sulfur carrier protein]-L-cysteine + AMP + diphosphate
ATP + H2O → AMP + diphosphate + H+
[glycine cleavage system lipoyl-carrier protein]-L-lysine + ATP + (R)-lipoate → AMP + a [glycine-cleavage complex H protein] N6-lipoyl-L-lysine + diphosphate + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis I , dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis :
α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + dTTP + H+ ↔ dTDP-α-D-glucose + diphosphate

histidine biosynthesis :
1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)-ATP + diphosphate ↔ ATP + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H+

UMP biosynthesis :
orotidine 5'-phosphate + diphosphate ↔ 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + orotate

Not in pathways:
GTP ↔ cyclic-GMP + diphosphate
heme b + (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O ↔ heme o + diphosphate
ATP + L-serine ↔ L-seryl-AMP + diphosphate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

di-trans,poly-cis-undecaprenyl phosphate biosynthesis :
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + 8 isopentenyl diphosphate = di-trans,octa-cis-undecaprenyl diphosphate + 8 diphosphate

Not in pathways:
ThiS protein + ATP = ThiS-COAMP + diphosphate
ATP + SucB + (R)-lipoate = AMP + SucB-lipoate + diphosphate
ATP + AceF + (R)-lipoate = AMP + AceF-lipoate + diphosphate
a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + (deoxynucleotides)(n) = (deoxynucleotides)(n+1) + diphosphate
ATP + an mRNA = an mRNA + diphosphate
ATP + ATP + H+ = 5',5'''-diadenosine tetraphosphate + diphosphate
EntB isochorismatase / aryl-carrier protein + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate + ATP = aryl-EntB + AMP + diphosphate
a nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = RNA(n+1) + diphosphate
protein chain elongation factor EF-P + D-β-lysine + ATP = protein chain elongation factor EF-P, β-lysyl-Lys34 + AMP + diphosphate
dimethylallyl diphosphate + an adenosine37 in tRNA = N6-dimethylallyladenosine37 in tRNA + diphosphate

Enzymes activated by diphosphate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: glutaminase B [Prusiner76] , polyphosphate kinase [Comment 1]

Enzymes inhibited by diphosphate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: xanthosine-5'-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming) [Spector75, Patel77] , pyruvate oxidase [Comment 2] , xanthosine-5'-phosphate:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming) [Spector75] , GTP cyclohydrolase [Foor75, Ritz01] , pyrophosphohydrolase [OHandley96, Comment 3] , polyphosphate kinase [Comment 4] , adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [HochstadtOzer71, Comment 5] , methylglyoxal synthase [Hopper71, Hopper72, Comment 6]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: arginyl-tRNA synthetase [Charlier79] , methionine adenosyltransferase [Markham80] , quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (decarboxylating) [Bhatia96] , adenylate cyclase [Yang83]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: acetyl-CoA synthetase (AMP-forming) [Barak04] , thiamine phosphate synthase [Kayama73, Kawasaki79] , glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase [Preiss83] , galactarate dehydratase [Blumenthal66, Blumenthal64] , dTDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase [Zuccotti01, Comment 7] , α-dehydro-β-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase [Fish66] , nucleoside diphosphate kinase [Roisin78] , dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase [Suzuki74, Comment 8] , tRNA(i6A37) synthase [Rosenbaum72] , glutamine synthetase deadenylase [Shapiro69] , thiamin monophosphate kinase [Nishino72] , glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase [Ebner70, Helmward89, Comment 9]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: aspartate ammonia-lyase

In Growth Media: PMA phosphorus source test + diphosphate


References

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Barak04: Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe AJ, Eisenbach M (2004). "Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);383-401. PMID: 15327942

Bernstein65: Bernstein R, Robbins P "Control aspects of uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose and thymidine 5'-diphosphate glucose synthesis by microbial enzymes." J Biol Chem 1965;240(1):391-397.

Bhatia96: Bhatia R, Calvo KC (1996). "The sequencing expression, purification, and steady-state kinetic analysis of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 325(2);270-8. PMID: 8561507

Blumenthal64: Blumenthal HJ, Jepson T (1964). "Asymmetric dehydration of galactarate by bacterial galactarate dehydratase." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1964;17(3);282-7. PMID: 4285952

Blumenthal66: Blumenthal, HJ, Jepson, T "Galactarate Dehydrase." Methods in Enzymology 9:665-669 (1966).

Charlier79: Charlier J, Gerlo E (1979). "Arginyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli K12. Purification, properties, and sequence of substrate addition." Biochemistry 18(14);3171-8. PMID: 37899

Cooper84: Cooper RA (1984). "Metabolism of methylglyoxal in microorganisms." Annu Rev Microbiol 1984;38;49-68. PMID: 6093685

Ebner70: Ebner E, Gancedo C, Holzer H "ATP:Glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (Escherichia coli B)." Methods in Enzymology 1970; 17A:922-927.

Ebner70a: Ebner E, Wolf D, Gancedo C, Elsasser S, Holzer H (1970). "ATP: glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase from Escherichia coli B. Purification and properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;14(3);535-44. PMID: 4920894

Fish66: Fish D, Blumenthal H "2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase." Meth Enz 1966;9:529-534.

Foor75: Foor F, Brown GM (1975). "Purification and properties of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1975;250(9);3545-51. PMID: 235552

Haeusler92: Haeusler PA, Dieter L, Rittle KJ, Shepler LS, Paszkowski AL, Moe OA (1992). "Catalytic properties of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase: an enzyme for ATP regeneration." Biotechnol Appl Biochem 1992;15(2);125-33. PMID: 1316760

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

HochstadtOzer71: Hochstadt-Ozer J, Stadtman ER (1971). "The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. I. Purification of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli K12 and control of activity by nucleotides." J Biol Chem 246(17);5294-303. PMID: 4328693

Hopper71: Hopper DJ, Cooper RA (1971). "The regulation of Escherichia coli methylglyoxal synthase; a new control site in glycolysis?." FEBS Lett 13(4);213-216. PMID: 11945670

Hopper72: Hopper DJ, Cooper RA (1972). "The purification and properties of Escherichia coli methylglyoxal synthase." Biochem J 1972;128(2);321-9. PMID: 4563643

Kawasaki79: Kawasaki T (1979). "Thiamine phosphate pyrophosphorylase." Methods Enzymol 1979;62;69-73. PMID: 374983

Kayama73: Kayama Y, Kawasaki T (1973). "Purification and properties of thiaminephosphate pyrophosphorylase of Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1973;158(1);242-8. PMID: 4580841

Markham80: Markham GD, Hafner EW, Tabor CW, Tabor H (1980). "S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1980;255(19);9082-92. PMID: 6251075

Mather82: Mather M, Schopfer LM, Massey V, Gennis RB (1982). "Studies of the flavin adenine dinucleotide binding region in Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase." J Biol Chem 1982;257(21);12887-92. PMID: 6752143

Nishino72: Nishino H (1972). "Biogenesis of cocarboxylase in Escherichia coli. Partial purification and some properties of thiamine monophosphate kinase." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1972;72(5);1093-100. PMID: 4567662

OHandley96: O'Handley SF, Frick DN, Bullions LC, Mildvan AS, Bessman MJ (1996). "Escherichia coli orf17 codes for a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase member of the MutT family of proteins. Cloning, purification, and characterization of the enzyme." J Biol Chem 1996;271(40);24649-54. PMID: 8798731

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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