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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: pyruvate

Synonyms: alpha-ketopropionic acid, BTS, α-ketopropionic acid, acetylformic acid, pyroracemic acid, 2-oxopropanoic acid, pyruvic acid, 2-oxopropanoate, 2-oxo-propionic acid

Superclasses: an acidall carboxy acidsa carboxylatea 2-oxo acida 2-oxo carboxylate
an acidall carboxy acidsa carboxylatea 2-oxo carboxylate
an acidall carboxy acidsa carboxylatea short-chain carboxylate

Component of:
sodium pyruvate
IclR-pyruvate DNA-binding transcriptional repressor (extended summary available)

Chemical Formula: C3H3O3

Molecular Weight: 87.055 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 88.0160439947 Daltons

pyruvate compound structure


InChI: InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)/p-1


Unification Links: CAS:127-17-3, ChEBI:15361, ChemSpider:96901, HMDB:HMDB00243, IAF1260:33546, KEGG:C00022, KNApSAcK:C00001200, MetaboLights:MTBLC15361, PubChem:107735, UMBBD-Compounds:c0159

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -112.9

Reactions known to consume the compound:

gluconeogenesis I , glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate) , glycolysis II (from fructose 6-phosphate) :
pyruvate + ATP + H2O → phosphoenolpyruvate + AMP + phosphate + 2 H+

L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) :
pyruvate + 2-oxobutanoate + H+ → (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate + CO2

L-lysine biosynthesis I :
pyruvate + L-aspartate-semialdehyde → (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + H2O + H+

methylerythritol phosphate pathway I , pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis I , thiazole biosynthesis I (facultative anaerobic bacteria) :
pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H+ → CO2 + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate

mixed acid fermentation :
formate + acetyl-CoA ← pyruvate + coenzyme A
(R)-lactate + NAD+pyruvate + NADH + H+

pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA :
pyruvate + a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-lipoyl-L-lysine + H+ → a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-acetyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + CO2

pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer , pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer :
pyruvate + a ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

Not in pathways:
pyruvate + an oxidized flavodoxin + coenzyme A + H+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced flavodoxin
pyruvate + acetaldehyde + H+ → acetoin + CO2

Reactions known to produce the compound:

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis :
2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate → (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate + pyruvate

2,3-dihydroxybenzoate biosynthesis :
isochorismate + H2O → pyruvate + (2S,3S)-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis II (microbes) :
chorismate → 4-hydroxybenzoate + pyruvate

D-fructuronate degradation , D-galacturonate degradation I , Entner-Doudoroff pathway I :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 6-phosphate → D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + pyruvate

D-lactate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transport , methylglyoxal degradation I , methylglyoxal degradation II :
(R)-lactate + a ubiquinone[inner membrane]pyruvate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

D-malate degradation :
(R)-malate + NAD+ → CO2 + pyruvate + NADH

D-serine degradation , L-cysteine degradation II , L-serine degradation , L-tryptophan degradation II (via pyruvate) :
2-iminopropanoate + H+ + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium

gluconeogenesis I :
(S)-malate + NADP+ → CO2 + pyruvate + NADPH
(S)-malate + NAD+ → CO2 + pyruvate + NADH

glycerol degradation V :
dihydroxyacetone + phosphoenolpyruvate → glycerone phosphate + pyruvate

glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate) , glycolysis II (from fructose 6-phosphate) , mixed acid fermentation :
pyruvate + ATP ← ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate + H+

hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis I :
3-mercaptopyruvate → pyruvate + hydrogen sulfide

L-alanine degradation I :
D-alanine + an electron-transfer quinone[inner membrane] + H2O → ammonium + pyruvate + an electron-transfer quinol[inner membrane]

L-lactaldehyde degradation (aerobic) :
(S)-lactate + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor → pyruvate + an reduced unknown electron acceptor

L-tryptophan biosynthesis :
chorismate + L-glutamine → anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate + H+

Not in pathways:
oxaloacetate + H+pyruvate + CO2
hydrogen cyanide + 3-mercaptopyruvate → pyruvate + thiocyanate + H+
L-cysteine + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium + hydrogen sulfide
L-cystathionine + H2O → ammonium + pyruvate + L-homocysteine
L-serine → pyruvate + ammonium
2-aminoprop-2-enoate + H+ + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium
D-cysteine + H2O → ammonium + pyruvate + hydrogen sulfide
phosphoenolpyruvate[periplasm] + H2O[periplasm]pyruvate[periplasm] + phosphate[periplasm]
phosphoenolpyruvate + a [PTS enzyme I]-L-histidine → pyruvate + a [PTS enzyme I]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine
2,3-diaminopropanoate + H2O → 2 ammonium + pyruvate

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

2-methylcitrate cycle I :
(2R,3S)-2-methylisocitrate ↔ succinate + pyruvate

2-oxopentenoate degradation :
4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate ↔ acetaldehyde + pyruvate

4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis :
4-amino-4-deoxychorismate ↔ 4-aminobenzoate + pyruvate + H+

D-galactarate degradation I , D-glucarate degradation I :
5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucarate ↔ pyruvate + tartronate semialdehyde

D-galactonate degradation :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate 6-phosphate ↔ D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + pyruvate

L-alanine biosynthesis I :
pyruvate + L-valine ↔ L-alanine + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate

L-alanine biosynthesis II :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

L-valine biosynthesis :
2 pyruvate + H+ ↔ (S)-2-acetolactate + CO2

N-acetylneuraminate and N-acetylmannosamine degradation I :
N-acetylneuraminate ↔ N-acetyl-D-mannosamine + pyruvate

Not in pathways:
D-alanine + pyridoxal 5'-phosphate ↔ pyruvate + pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-L-rhamnonate = pyruvate + (S)-lactaldehyde
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate = D-glyceraldehyde + pyruvate
(4S)-4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate = glyoxylate + pyruvate
D-serine = pyruvate + ammonium
L-tryptophan + H2O = ammonium + indole + pyruvate
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-arabinonate = glycolaldehyde + pyruvate
N-acetyl-β-neuraminate = N-acetyl-β-D-mannosamine + pyruvate
phosphoenolpyruvate + PtsP = pyruvate + PtsP-phosphorylated
phosphoenolpyruvate + PtsI = pyruvate + PtsI-Phis189
pyruvate + lipoamide + H+ = S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + CO2
pyruvate + thiamine diphosphate + H+ = 2-(α-hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + CO2
IclR + pyruvate = IclR transcriptional repressor
PdhR + pyruvate = PdhR-pyruvate

Not in pathways:
L-methionine + a 2-oxo carboxylate = 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate + a standard α amino acid

Not in pathways:
a 2-acyl 1-lyso-phosphatidylcholine + H2O = a carboxylate + sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+
an aldehyde[periplasm] + FAD[periplasm] + H2O[periplasm] = a carboxylate[periplasm] + FADH2[periplasm]

In Transport reactions:
a short-chain carboxylate[periplasm]a short-chain carboxylate[extracellular space]

In Redox half-reactions:
acetate[in] + CO2[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane]pyruvate[in] + H2O[in],
pyruvate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → D-alanine[in] + H2O[in],
pyruvate[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → (S)-lactate[in],
pyruvate[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → (R)-lactate[in],
a 2-oxo carboxylate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → a D-amino acid[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes activated by pyruvate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: D-lactate dehydrogenase [Tarmy68] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme [Crain14], phosphate acetyltransferase [Bologna10], cysteine sulfinate desulfinase [Mihara00, Comment 1], phosphate acetyltransferase [Suzuki69, CamposBermudez10], isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphatase [Nimmo84, Miller00, Comment 2]

Enzymes inhibited by pyruvate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: N-acetyl-β-neuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84], 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase, proline dehydrogenase [Scarpulla78], N-acetylneuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 3-phosphoshikimate-1-carboxyvinyltransferase [Huynh92], phosphate acetyltransferase [CamposBermudez10], threonine dehydratase [Park79], malate synthase G [Anstrom03], 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [Powers76, Comment 3], isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase [Nimmo84, Miller00], pyruvate formate-lyase deactivase [Kessler92], pyruvate dehydrogenase [Helmward89, Williams90]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: putrescine aminotransferase, diamine transaminase

In Growth Media: PMA sulfur source test + 3-sulfinoalanine, PMA nitrogen source test + L-2-aminopentanoate, PMA nitrogen source test + N-acetyl-D,L-glutamate, PMA nitrogen source test + D-mannosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-gln, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-asp, PMA nitrogen source test + D,L-lactamide, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-his, PMA nitrogen source test + L-Ala-L-Glu, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-thr, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-leu, PMA nitrogen source test + gln, PMA nitrogen source test + gly-asn, PMA nitrogen source test + methionine-alanine dipeptide, PMA nitrogen source test + gly-met, PMA sulfur source test + gly-met, PMA sulfur source test + cysteinylglycine, PMA phosphorus source test + 1D-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 3-phospho-D-glycerate, PMA phosphorus source test + 2-phospho-D-glycerate, PMA phosphorus source test + cyclic-AMP, PMA phosphorus source test + 3'-adenosine monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphinate, PMA sulfur source test + 4-aminobenzenesulfonate, PMA sulfur source test + ethionine, PMA sulfur source test + sulfolane, PMA sulfur source test + methanesulfonate, PMA sulfur source test + isethionate, PMA sulfur source test + 1-butanesulfonate, PMA sulfur source test + hypotaurine, PMA sulfur source test + taurine, PMA sulfur source test + taurocholate, PMA sulfur source test + lipoamide, PMA sulfur source test + 1-thio-β-D-glucose, PMA sulfur source test + thiourea, PMA sulfur source test + djenkolate, PMA sulfur source test + L-Methionine sulfone, PMA sulfur source test + L-methionine S-oxide, PMA sulfur source test + N-acetyl-DL-methionine, PMA sulfur source test + D-methionine, PMA sulfur source test + met, PMA sulfur source test + glutathione, PMA sulfur source test + lanthionine, PMA sulfur source test + L-cystathionine, PMA sulfur source test + S-methyl-L-cysteine, PMA sulfur source test + N-acetyl-L-cysteine, PMA sulfur source test + cysteamine, PMA sulfur source test + (R)-cysteate, PMA sulfur source test + D-cysteine, PMA sulfur source test + cys, PMA sulfur source test + dithiophosphate, PMA sulfur source test + thiophosphate, PMA sulfur source test + tetrathionate, PMA sulfur source test + thiosulfate, PMA sulfur source test + sulfate, PMA phosphorus source test + thymidine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + dTMP, PMA phosphorus source test + thymidine 3'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + methylenediphosphonate, PMA phosphorus source test + 2-aminoethylphosphonate, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphonoacetate, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoryl-ethanolamine, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoryl-choline, PMA phosphorus source test + creatine-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-L-tyrosine, PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-D-tyrosine, PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 2'3'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + UMP, PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 3'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + uridine 2'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + L-threonine O-3-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 3-phospho-L-serine, PMA phosphorus source test + O-phospho-D-serine, PMA phosphorus source test + N-phospho-L-arginine, PMA phosphorus source test + cysteamine S-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + D-mannose 6-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 3',5'-cyclic CMP, PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + CMP, PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine-3'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + cytidine 2'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 6-phospho-D-gluconate, PMA phosphorus source test + D-glucosamine-6-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + D-glucose-6-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + 2-phosphoglycolate, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphoenolpyruvate, PMA phosphorus source test + cyclic-GMP, PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + GMP, PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 3'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + guanosine 2'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + carbamoyl-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + glycerol 2-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + dithiophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + thiophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + adenosine 2'3'-cyclic monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + AMP, PMA phosphorus source test + adenosine 2'-monophosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + triethyl phosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + PPPi, PMA phosphorus source test + trimetaphosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + diphosphate, PMA phosphorus source test + phosphate, PMA nitrogen source test + glycyl-L-glutamate, PMA nitrogen source test + ala-gly, PMA nitrogen source test + 5-aminopentanoate, PMA nitrogen source test + 2-aminocaprylate, PMA nitrogen source test + 6-aminohexanoate, PMA nitrogen source test + 4-aminobutyrate, PMA nitrogen source test + 2-aminobutyrate, PMA nitrogen source test + parabanate, PMA nitrogen source test + allantoin, PMA nitrogen source test + alloxan, PMA nitrogen source test + urate, PMA nitrogen source test + xanthosine, PMA nitrogen source test + xanthine, PMA nitrogen source test + inosine, PMA nitrogen source test + uridine, PMA nitrogen source test + uracil, PMA nitrogen source test + thymidine, PMA nitrogen source test + thymine, PMA nitrogen source test + guanosine, PMA nitrogen source test + guanine, PMA nitrogen source test + cytosine, PMA nitrogen source test + cytidine, PMA nitrogen source test + adenosine, PMA nitrogen source test + adenine, PMA nitrogen source test + N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + galactosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + D-glucosamine, PMA nitrogen source test + glucuronamide, PMA nitrogen source test + formamide, PMA nitrogen source test + acetamide, PMA nitrogen source test + tyramine, PMA nitrogen source test + 2-phenylethylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + histamine, PMA nitrogen source test + agmatine, PMA nitrogen source test + putrescine, PMA nitrogen source test + ethylenediamine, PMA nitrogen source test + ethanolamine, PMA nitrogen source test + ethylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + butylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + n-amylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + methylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + hydroxylamine, PMA nitrogen source test + 5-oxoproline, PMA nitrogen source test + 2-phthalimidoglutarate, PMA nitrogen source test + L-ornithine, PMA nitrogen source test + L-homoserine, PMA nitrogen source test + L-citrulline, PMA nitrogen source test + D-valine, PMA nitrogen source test + D-serine, PMA nitrogen source test + D-lysine, PMA nitrogen source test + D-glutamate, PMA nitrogen source test + D-aspartate, PMA nitrogen source test + D-asparagine, PMA nitrogen source test + D-alanine, PMA nitrogen source test + val, PMA nitrogen source test + tyr, PMA nitrogen source test + trp, PMA nitrogen source test + thr, PMA nitrogen source test + ser, PMA nitrogen source test + pro, PMA nitrogen source test + phe, PMA nitrogen source test + met, PMA nitrogen source test + lys, PMA nitrogen source test + leu, PMA nitrogen source test + ile, PMA nitrogen source test + his, PMA nitrogen source test + gly, PMA nitrogen source test + gln, PMA nitrogen source test + glt, PMA nitrogen source test + cys, PMA nitrogen source test + asp, PMA nitrogen source test + asn, PMA nitrogen source test + arg, PMA nitrogen source test + ala, PMA nitrogen source test + biuret, PMA nitrogen source test + urea, PMA nitrogen source test + nitrate, PMA nitrogen source test + nitrite, PMA nitrogen source test + ammonia, PMA carbon source test + pyruvate, Bochner defined minimal medium without phosphorous, Bochner defined minimal medium without sulfur, Bochner defined minimal medium without nitrogen, Bochner defined minimal medium

Transcription Units regulated by related protein IclR-pyruvate DNA-binding transcriptional repressor (2 total):

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


Aisaka91: Aisaka K, Igarashi A, Yamaguchi K, Uwajima T (1991). "Purification, crystallization and characterization of N-acetylneuraminate lyase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1991;276 ( Pt 2);541-6. PMID: 1646603

Anstrom03: Anstrom DM, Kallio K, Remington SJ (2003). "Structure of the Escherichia coli malate synthase G:pyruvate:acetyl-coenzyme A abortive ternary complex at 1.95 A resolution." Protein Sci 12(9);1822-32. PMID: 12930982

Bologna10: Bologna FP, Campos-Bermudez VA, Saavedra DD, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2010). "Characterization of Escherichia coli EutD: a phosphotransacetylase of the ethanolamine operon." J Microbiol 48(5);629-36. PMID: 21046341

CamposBermudez10: Campos-Bermudez VA, Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2010). "Functional dissection of Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase structural domains and analysis of key compounds involved in activity regulation." FEBS J 277(8);1957-66. PMID: 20236319

Crain14: Crain AV, Broderick JB (2014). "Pyruvate formate-lyase and its activation by pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme." J Biol Chem 289(9);5723-9. PMID: 24338017

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Huynh92: Huynh QK (1992). "Inactivation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase by its substrate analogue pyruvate in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 185(1);317-22. PMID: 1599467

Kessler92: Kessler D, Herth W, Knappe J (1992). "Ultrastructure and pyruvate formate-lyase radical quenching property of the multienzymic AdhE protein of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1992;267(25);18073-9. PMID: 1325457

Mihara00: Mihara H, Kurihara T, Yoshimura T, Esaki N (2000). "Kinetic and mutational studies of three NifS homologs from Escherichia coli: Mechanistic difference between L-cysteine desulfurase and L-selenocysteine lyase reactions." J. Biochem. 127:559-567 (2000). PMID: 10739946

Miller00: Miller SP, Chen R, Karschnia EJ, Romfo C, Dean A, LaPorte DC (2000). "Locations of the regulatory sites for isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase." J Biol Chem 275(2);833-9. PMID: 10625615

Nimmo84: Nimmo GA, Nimmo HG (1984). "The regulatory properties of isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphatase from Escherichia coli ML308 and the roles of these activities in the control of isocitrate dehydrogenase." Eur J Biochem 1984;141(2);409-14. PMID: 6329757

Park79: Park LS, Datta P (1979). "Inhibition of Escherichia coli biodegradative threonine dehydratase by pyruvate." J Bacteriol 138(3);1026-8. PMID: 378926

Powers76: Powers SG, Snell EE (1976). "Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase. II. Physical, catalytic, and regulatory properties." J Biol Chem 1976;251(12);3786-93. PMID: 6463

Scarpulla78: Scarpulla RC, Soffer RL (1978). "Membrane-bound proline dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Solubilization, purification, and characterization." J Biol Chem 1978;253(17);5997-6001. PMID: 355248

Suzuki69: Suzuki T (1969). "Phosphotransacetylase of Escherichia coli B, activation by pyruvate and inhibition by NADH and certain nucleotides." Biochim Biophys Acta 1969;191(3);559-69. PMID: 4312205

Tarmy68: Tarmy EM, Kaplan NO (1968). "Kinetics of Escherichia coli B D-lactate dehydrogenase and evidence for pyruvate-controlled change in conformation." J Biol Chem 1968;243(10);2587-96. PMID: 4297266

Uchida84: Uchida Y, Tsukada Y, Sugimori T (1984). "Purification and properties of N-acetylneuraminate lyase from Escherichia coli." J Biochem 96(2);507-22. PMID: 6389524

Williams90: Williams KP, Leadlay PF, Lowe PN (1990). "Inhibition of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Trichomonas vaginalis by pyruvate and its analogues. Comparison with the pyruvate decarboxylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochem J 1990;268(1);69-75. PMID: 2188649

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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