Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: choline dehydrogenase

Gene: betA Accession Numbers: EG10109 (EcoCyc), b0311, ECK0309

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for betA

Choline dehydrogenase (CHD) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline. CHD is associated with the membrane, is electron transfer-linked and oxygen dependent [Landfald86].

Based on sequence similarity, BetA was predicted to be a hydroxynitrile lyase [Reed03].

A betA mutant does not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but is able to grow when the media is supplemented with glycine betaine [Styrvold86]. Expression of the bet operon is regulated by oxygen, choline, osmotic stress, and temperature [Eshoo88, Lamark96].

BetA: "betaine" [Styrvold86]

Gene Citations: [Rkenes96]

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Map Position: [324,801 <- 326,471] (7.0 centisomes, 25°)
Length: 1671 bp / 556 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 61.878 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 65.0 kD (experimental) [Lamark91 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0001070 , CGSC:17740 , EchoBASE:EB0107 , EcoGene:EG10109 , EcoliWiki:b0311 , ModBase:P17444 , OU-Microarray:b0311 , PortEco:betA , PR:PRO_000022207 , Pride:P17444 , Protein Model Portal:P17444 , RefSeq:NP_414845 , RegulonDB:EG10109 , SMR:P17444 , String:511145.b0311 , UniProt:P17444

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000172 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007867 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011533 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012132 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00732 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05199 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00623 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00624

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for betA

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006970 - response to osmotic stress Inferred from experiment [Styrvold86, Landfald86, Lamark96]
GO:0019285 - glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12, GOA06, GOA01, Styrvold86]
GO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0008812 - choline dehydrogenase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a, GOA01, Landfald86]
GO:0008802 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016614 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0050660 - flavin adenine dinucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Landfald86]
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations osmotic pressure
cell structure membrane
metabolism central intermediary metabolism betaine biosynthesis

Essentiality data for betA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Last-Curated ? 07-Oct-2010 by Keseler I , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: choline dehydrogenase

Synonyms: CHD, choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase

EC Number:

choline + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor <=> betaine aldehyde + an reduced unknown electron acceptor

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: glycine betaine biosynthesis I (Gram-negative bacteria)

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)

pH(opt): 7.5 [Landfald86]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of choline dehydrogenase with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 4 -> 33
UniProt: FAD; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Active-Site 473
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b0311 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10109; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eshoo88: Eshoo MW (1988). "lac fusion analysis of the bet genes of Escherichia coli: regulation by osmolarity, temperature, oxygen, choline, and glycine betaine." J Bacteriol 1988;170(11);5208-15. PMID: 3141381

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Lamark91: Lamark T, Kaasen I, Eshoo MW, Falkenberg P, McDougall J, Strom AR (1991). "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1991;5(5);1049-64. PMID: 1956285

Lamark96: Lamark T, Rokenes TP, McDougall J, Strom AR (1996). "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress." J Bacteriol 1996;178(6);1655-62. PMID: 8626294

Landfald86: Landfald B, Strom AR (1986). "Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1986;165(3);849-55. PMID: 3512525

Reed03: Reed JL, Vo TD, Schilling CH, Palsson BO (2003). "An expanded genome-scale model of Escherichia coli K-12 (iJR904 GSM/GPR)." Genome Biol 4(9);R54. PMID: 12952533

Rkenes96: Rkenes TP, Lamark T, Strom AR (1996). "DNA-binding properties of the BetI repressor protein of Escherichia coli: the inducer choline stimulates BetI-DNA complex formation." J Bacteriol 1996;178(6);1663-70. PMID: 8626295

Styrvold86: Styrvold OB, Falkenberg P, Landfald B, Eshoo MW, Bjornsen T, Strom AR (1986). "Selection, mapping, and characterization of osmoregulatory mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in the choline-glycine betaine pathway." J Bacteriol 165(3);856-63. PMID: 3512526

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Lynch96: Lynch AS, Lin EC (1996). "Transcriptional control mediated by the ArcA two-component response regulator protein of Escherichia coli: characterization of DNA binding at target promoters." J Bacteriol 1996;178(21);6238-49. PMID: 8892825

Son11: Son YJ, Phue JN, Trinh LB, Lee SJ, Shiloach J (2011). "The role of Cra in regulating acetate excretion and osmotic tolerance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli B at high density growth." Microb Cell Fact 10;52. PMID: 21718532

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Thu Oct 8, 2015, biocyc13.