Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: mechanosensitive channel MscL

Gene: mscL Accession Numbers: EG11180 (EcoCyc), b3291, ECK3277

Synonyms: yhdC

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for mscL

Subunit composition of mechanosensitive channel MscL = [MscL]5

MscL is a mechanosensitive channel of large conductance. MscL converts mechanical tension in the cell membrane into an electrochemical response. Upon osmotic downshift water flows into a cell, increasing pressure on the membrane which activates MscL and allows solutes to exit. MscL acts as a pressure release valve, preventing cell lysis due to increased osmotic pressure.

The protein was originally discovered by patch clamp studies on protein fractions reconstituted into liposomes [Sukharev94, Sukharev97]. MscL conductance is 2.5 nanosiemens in E. coli spheroplasts [Sukharev93]. MscL activates at pressures close to those causing cell lysis [Berrier96]. MscL was the first cloned molecule shown to respond to mechanical force by opening a large aqueous pore. The export of ions is fairly nonspecific, with slight selectivity for cations over anions; conductance is unsaturable (up to 2M KCl) [Sukharev99]. MscL has also been shown to transfer cytoplasmic proteins including thioredoxin, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and DnaK to the periplasm upon shock [Ajouz98, Berrier00]. MscL will allow passage of macromolecules smaller than 6.5 kDa [vandenBogaart07]. Gating of MscL is induced by lateral tension within the lipid bilayer [Sukharev93, Moe05, Tang06, Andersson08]. The bilayer tension dependence of MscL may be modulated by changes in pH mediated through a charged cluser of amino acids located within the cytoplasmic helices of MscL [Kloda06].

MscL, located within the cytoplasmic membrane, is a homooligomer. Each monomer consists of two transmembrane regions connected by a periplasmic loop with the N and C termini located in the cytoplasm [Blount96]. MscL is capable of forming complexes composed of two, three, four, or six subunits [Blount96], however a pentameric form is believed to be the primary functional complex [Sukharev99a, Folgering05]. A structural model of MscL (based in part, on the crystal structure of MscL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Chang98a]) has been developed; it suggests that both the N and C terminal regions contain a helical domain; in the pentameric complex these domains form bundles [Sukharev01]. Extensive analyses of the gating mechanism of MscL have been performed [Blount96a, Hase97, Gu98, Ou98, Sukharev99b, Yoshimura99, Sukharev01a, Gullingsrud01, Yoshimura01, Ajouz00, Sukharev01, Bilston02, Batiza02, Kong02, Perozo02, Betanzos02, Perozo02a, Anishkin03, Maurer03, Valadie03, Gullingsrud03, Wiggins04, Yoshimura04, Chiang04, Levin04, Bartlett04, Shapovalov04, Turner04a, Anishkin05, Corry05, Khan05, Chiang05, Bartlett06, Iscla07, Chen08b, Tang08a, Iscla08, Birkner12, Gracia13].

mscL expression is induced by RpoS upon entry into stationary phase and by osmotic stress [Stokes03]. MscL is targeted to the membrane by the SRP pathway and is inserted independently of the Sec translocon [Facey07, Pop09]. Conflicting results on the requirement of YidC for membrane insertion of MscL monomers have been reported [Facey07, Pop09] and a role for YidC in the assembly of homopentameric MscL has been suggested [Pop09].

Seven mechanosensitive ion channels have been characterised in E. coli K-12: MscL, MscS, MscK, MscM, YnaI, YbiO and YbdG. A strain lacking all seven of these proteins fails to demonstrate channel opening in patch clamp experiments [Edwards12]. mscS mscL double deletion mutants exhibit a lysis phenotype upon osmotic downshock [Levina99].

Parabens have been shown to induce MscL activity which allows leakage of cell contents, suggesting a mechanism for their capability as antimicrobial agents [Nguyen05].

mscL: mechanosensitive channel of large conductance

Reviews: [Sukharev96, Blount96b, Sukharev97, Blount99, Wood99, Booth99, Sukharev99, Batiza99, Spencer99, Blount99a, Oakley99, Rees00, Ajouz00, Kubalski00, Martinac01, Biggin01, Blount97, Koprowski01, Roux02, Spencer02, Pivetti03, Strop03, Perozo03, Clarkson04, Edwards04, Sukharev04, Kung04]

Citations: [Hase97a, Cruickshank97, Blount97a, Arkin98, Moe98, Nakamaru99, Sukharev00, Maurer00, Konforti01, Perozo01, Maurer01, Okada02, Kloda02, Sachs02, Bezanilla02, Powl03, Park04, Clayton04, Buurman04, Li04c, Folgering04, Wiggins05, Tsai05, Norman05, Hughes05a, Ewis05, Meyer06, Ursell07, Carney07, Li09d, Zhong14, Powl08, Powl08a, Saint98, Hase95]

Gene Citations: [Kawano05]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [3,436,046 -> 3,436,456] (74.06 centisomes, 267°)
Length: 411 bp / 136 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 14.957 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 17.0 kD (experimental) [Blount96 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010790 , CGSC:35417 , DIP:DIP-29827N , EchoBASE:EB1167 , EcoGene:EG11180 , EcoliWiki:b3291 , Mint:MINT-8071627 , ModBase:P0A742 , OU-Microarray:b3291 , PortEco:mscL , PR:PRO_000023296 , Pride:P0A742 , Protein Model Portal:P0A742 , RefSeq:NP_417749 , RegulonDB:EG11180 , SMR:P0A742 , String:511145.b3291 , UniProt:P0A742

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001185 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR019823 , PDB:Structure:1KYK , PDB:Structure:1KYL , PDB:Structure:1KYM , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01741 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR01264 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01327

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Sukharev94]
GO:0009992 - cellular water homeostasis Inferred from experiment [Levina99]
GO:0034220 - ion transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Hase95, Blount96, Sukharev94]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Molecular Function: GO:0008381 - mechanically-gated ion channel activity Inferred from experiment [Hase95, Blount96, Sukharev94]
GO:0042802 - identical protein binding Inferred from experiment [Blount96, Price11, Lasserre06]
GO:0005216 - ion channel activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015267 - channel activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06, Blount96, DiazMejia09, Zhang07, Daley05]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Blount96]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Lasserre06]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Blount96]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress)
cell structure membrane
transport Channel-type Transporters alpha-type channels

Essentiality data for mscL knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Created 03-Oct-2007 by Johnson A , JCVI
Last-Curated ? 03-Oct-2007 by Johnson A , JCVI
Revised 28-Oct-2014 by Mackie A , Macquarie University

Enzymatic reaction of: mechanosensitive channel MscL

Transport reaction diagram for mechanosensitive channel MscL

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of MscL with features indicated

Feature Class Location Common Name Citations
Protein-Segment 1 -> 16 cytoplasmic N-terminal domain
[Blount96, Ajouz00]
Transmembrane-Region 19 -> 38 M1
Protein-Segment 45 -> 74 periplasmic loop
[Blount96, Ajouz00]
Transmembrane-Region 70 -> 96 M2
Protein-Segment 95 -> 136 cytoplasmic C-terminal domain
[Ajouz00, Blount96]

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3291 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG11180; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Ajouz00: Ajouz B, Berrier C, Besnard M, Martinac B, Ghazi A (2000). "Contributions of the different extramembranous domains of the mechanosensitive ion channel MscL to its response to membrane tension." J Biol Chem 2000;275(2);1015-22. PMID: 10625640

Ajouz98: Ajouz B, Berrier C, Garrigues A, Besnard M, Ghazi A (1998). "Release of thioredoxin via the mechanosensitive channel MscL during osmotic downshock of Escherichia coli cells." J Biol Chem 273(41);26670-4. PMID: 9756908

Andersson08: Andersson M, Okeyo G, Wilson D, Keizer H, Moe P, Blount P, Fine D, Dodabalapur A, Duran RS (2008). "Voltage-induced gating of the mechanosensitive MscL ion channel reconstituted in a tethered lipid bilayer membrane." Biosens Bioelectron 23(6);919-23. PMID: 17996439

Anishkin03: Anishkin A, Gendel V, Sharifi NA, Chiang CS, Shirinian L, Guy HR, Sukharev S (2003). "On the conformation of the COOH-terminal domain of the large mechanosensitive channel MscL." J Gen Physiol 121(3);227-44. PMID: 12601086

Anishkin05: Anishkin A, Chiang CS, Sukharev S (2005). "Gain-of-function mutations reveal expanded intermediate states and a sequential action of two gates in MscL." J Gen Physiol 125(2);155-70. PMID: 15684093

Arkin98: Arkin IT, Sukharev SI, Blount P, Kung C, Brunger AT (1998). "Helicity, membrane incorporation, orientation and thermal stability of the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel from E. coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1369(1);131-40. PMID: 9528681

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bartlett04: Bartlett JL, Levin G, Blount P (2004). "An in vivo assay identifies changes in residue accessibility on mechanosensitive channel gating." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(27);10161-5. PMID: 15226501

Bartlett06: Bartlett JL, Li Y, Blount P (2006). "Mechanosensitive channel gating transitions resolved by functional changes upon pore modification." Biophys J 91(10);3684-91. PMID: 16935962

Batiza02: Batiza AF, Kuo MM, Yoshimura K, Kung C (2002). "Gating the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL invivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(8);5643-8. PMID: 11960017

Batiza99: Batiza AF, Rayment I, Kung C (1999). "Channel gate! Tension, leak and disclosure." Structure 7(5);R99-103. PMID: 10378264

Berrier00: Berrier C, Garrigues A, Richarme G, Ghazi A (2000). "Elongation factor Tu and DnaK are transferred from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of Escherichia coli during osmotic downshock presumably via the mechanosensitive channel mscL." J Bacteriol 2000;182(1);248-51. PMID: 10613892

Berrier96: Berrier C, Besnard M, Ajouz B, Coulombe A, Ghazi A (1996). "Multiple mechanosensitive ion channels from Escherichia coli, activated at different thresholds of applied pressure." J Membr Biol 151(2);175-87. PMID: 8661505

Betanzos02: Betanzos M, Chiang CS, Guy HR, Sukharev S (2002). "A large iris-like expansion of a mechanosensitive channel protein induced by membrane tension." Nat Struct Biol 9(9);704-10. PMID: 12172538

Bezanilla02: Bezanilla F, Perozo E (2002). "Structural biology. Force and voltage sensors in one structure." Science 298(5598);1562-3. PMID: 12446894

Biggin01: Biggin PC, Sansom MS (2001). "Channel gating: twist to open." Curr Biol 11(9);R364-6. PMID: 11369249

Bilston02: Bilston LE, Mylvaganam K (2002). "Molecular simulations of the large conductance mechanosensitive (MscL) channel under mechanical loading." FEBS Lett 512(1-3);185-90. PMID: 11852077

Birkner12: Birkner JP, Poolman B, Kocer A (2012). "Hydrophobic gating of mechanosensitive channel of large conductance evidenced by single-subunit resolution." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(32);12944-9. PMID: 22826215

Blount96: Blount P, Sukharev SI, Moe PC, Schroeder MJ, Guy HR, Kung C (1996). "Membrane topology and multimeric structure of a mechanosensitive channel protein of Escherichia coli." EMBO J 15(18);4798-805. PMID: 8890153

Blount96a: Blount P, Sukharev SI, Schroeder MJ, Nagle SK, Kung C (1996). "Single residue substitutions that change the gating properties of a mechanosensitive channel in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(21);11652-7. PMID: 8876191

Blount96b: Blount P, Sukharev SI, Moe PC, Nagle SK, Kung C (1996). "Towards an understanding of the structural and functional properties of MscL, a mechanosensitive channel in bacteria." Biol Cell 87(1-2);1-8. PMID: 9004483

Blount97: Blount P, Sukharev S, Kung C (1997). "A mechanosensitive channel protein and its gene in E. coli." Gravit Space Biol Bull 10(2);43-7. PMID: 11540118

Blount97a: Blount P, Schroeder MJ, Kung C (1997). "Mutations in a bacterial mechanosensitive channel change the cellular response to osmotic stress." J Biol Chem 272(51);32150-7. PMID: 9405414

Blount99: Blount P, Sukharev SI, Moe PC, Martinac B, Kung C (1999). "Mechanosensitive channels of bacteria." Methods Enzymol 294;458-82. PMID: 9916243

Blount99a: Blount P, Moe PC (1999). "Bacterial mechanosensitive channels: integrating physiology, structure and function." Trends Microbiol 7(10);420-4. PMID: 10498951

Booth99: Booth IR, Louis P (1999). "Managing hypoosmotic stress: aquaporins and mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli." Curr Opin Microbiol 2(2);166-9. PMID: 10322175

Buurman04: Buurman ET, McLaggan D, Naprstek J, Epstein W (2004). "Multiple paths for nonphysiological transport of K+ in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(13);4238-45. PMID: 15205426

Carney07: Carney J, East JM, Lee AG (2007). "Penetration of lipid chains into transmembrane surfaces of membrane proteins: studies with MscL." Biophys J 92(10);3556-63. PMID: 17307828

Chang98a: Chang G, Spencer RH, Lee AT, Barclay MT, Rees DC (1998). "Structure of the MscL homolog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a gated mechanosensitive ion channel." Science 282(5397);2220-6. PMID: 9856938

Chen08b: Chen X, Cui Q, Tang Y, Yoo J, Yethiraj A (2008). "Gating mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels of large conductance, I: a continuum mechanics-based hierarchical framework." Biophys J 95(2);563-80. PMID: 18390626

Chiang04: Chiang CS, Anishkin A, Sukharev S (2004). "Gating of the large mechanosensitive channel in situ: estimation of the spatial scale of the transition from channel population responses." Biophys J 86(5);2846-61. PMID: 15111402

Chiang05: Chiang CS, Shirinian L, Sukharev S (2005). "Capping transmembrane helices of MscL with aromatic residues changes channel response to membrane stretch." Biochemistry 44(37);12589-97. PMID: 16156671

Clarkson04: Clarkson S (2004). "Regulating osmosensing." Nat Rev Microbiol 2(2);86-7. PMID: 15040250

Clayton04: Clayton D, Shapovalov G, Maurer JA, Dougherty DA, Lester HA, Kochendoerfer GG (2004). "Total chemical synthesis and electrophysiological characterization of mechanosensitive channels from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(14);4764-9. PMID: 15041744

Corry05: Corry B, Rigby P, Liu ZW, Martinac B (2005). "Conformational changes involved in MscL channel gating measured using FRET spectroscopy." Biophys J 89(6);L49-51. PMID: 16199508

Cruickshank97: Cruickshank CC, Minchin RF, Le Dain AC, Martinac B (1997). "Estimation of the pore size of the large-conductance mechanosensitive ion channel of Escherichia coli." Biophys J 73(4);1925-31. PMID: 9336188

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Edwards04: Edwards MD, Booth IR, Miller S (2004). "Gating the bacterial mechanosensitive channels: MscS a new paradigm?." Curr Opin Microbiol 7(2);163-7. PMID: 15063854

Edwards12: Edwards MD, Black S, Rasmussen T, Rasmussen A, Stokes NR, Stephen TL, Miller S, Booth IR (2012). "Characterization of three novel mechanosensitive channel activities in Escherichia coli." Channels (Austin) 6(4);272-81. PMID: 22874652

Ewis05: Ewis HE, Lu CD (2005). "Osmotic shock: a mechanosensitive channel blocker can prevent release of cytoplasmic but not periplasmic proteins." FEMS Microbiol Lett 253(2);295-301. PMID: 16288836

Facey07: Facey SJ, Neugebauer SA, Krauss S, Kuhn A (2007). "The mechanosensitive channel protein MscL is targeted by the SRP to the novel YidC membrane insertion pathway of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 365(4);995-1004. PMID: 17113597

Folgering04: Folgering JH, Kuiper JM, de Vries AH, Engberts JB, Poolman B (2004). "Lipid-mediated light activation of a mechanosensitive channel of large conductance." Langmuir 20(17);6985-7. PMID: 15301476

Folgering05: Folgering JH, Wolters JC, Poolman B (2005). "Engineering covalent oligomers of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance from Escherichia coli with native conductance and gating characteristics." Protein Sci 14(12);2947-54. PMID: 16322576

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Gracia13: Gracia E, Farre D, Cortes A, Ferrer-Costa C, Orozco M, Mallol J, Lluis C, Canela EI, McCormick PJ, Franco R, Fanelli F, Casado V (2013). "The catalytic site structural gate of adenosine deaminase allosterically modulates ligand binding to adenosine receptors." FASEB J 27(3);1048-61. PMID: 23193172

Gu98: Gu L, Liu W, Martinac B (1998). "Electromechanical coupling model of gating the large mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of Escherichia coli by mechanical force." Biophys J 74(6);2889-902. PMID: 9635742

Gullingsrud01: Gullingsrud J, Kosztin D, Schulten K (2001). "Structural determinants of MscL gating studied by molecular dynamics simulations." Biophys J 80(5);2074-81. PMID: 11325711

Gullingsrud03: Gullingsrud J, Schulten K (2003). "Gating of MscL studied by steered molecular dynamics." Biophys J 85(4);2087-99. PMID: 14507677

Hase95: Hase CC, Le Dain AC, Martinac B (1995). "Purification and functional reconstitution of the recombinant large mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 270(31);18329-34. PMID: 7543101

Hase97: Hase CC, Le Dain AC, Martinac B (1997). "Molecular dissection of the large mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of E. coli: mutants with altered channel gating and pressure sensitivity." J Membr Biol 157(1);17-25. PMID: 9141355

Hase97a: Hase CC, Minchin RF, Kloda A, Martinac B (1997). "Cross-linking studies and membrane localization and assembly of radiolabelled large mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 232(3);777-82. PMID: 9126353

Hughes05a: Hughes S, El Haj AJ, Dobson J, Martinac B (2005). "The influence of static magnetic fields on mechanosensitive ion channel activity in artificial liposomes." Eur Biophys J 34(5);461-8. PMID: 15959773

Iscla07: Iscla I, Levin G, Wray R, Blount P (2007). "Disulfide trapping the mechanosensitive channel MscL into a gating-transition state." Biophys J 92(4);1224-32. PMID: 17114217

Iscla08: Iscla I, Wray R, Blount P (2008). "On the structure of the N-terminal domain of the MscL channel: helical bundle or membrane interface." Biophys J 95(5);2283-91. PMID: 18515388

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kawano05: Kawano M, Reynolds AA, Miranda-Rios J, Storz G (2005). "Detection of 5'- and 3'-UTR-derived small RNAs and cis-encoded antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 33(3);1040-50. PMID: 15718303

Khan05: Khan RN, Martinac B, Madsen BW, Milne RK, Yeo GF, Edeson RO (2005). "Hidden Markov analysis of mechanosensitive ion channel gating." Math Biosci 193(2);139-58. PMID: 15748727

Kloda02: Kloda A, Martinac B (2002). "Mechanosensitive channels of bacteria and archaea share a common ancestral origin." Eur Biophys J 31(1);14-25. PMID: 12046893

Kloda06: Kloda A, Ghazi A, Martinac B (2006). "C-terminal charged cluster of MscL, RKKEE, functions as a pH sensor." Biophys J 90(6);1992-8. PMID: 16387769

Konforti01: Konforti B (2001). "Picture story. Leak proof channel." Nat Struct Biol 8(3);202. PMID: 11224560

Kong02: Kong Y, Shen Y, Warth TE, Ma J (2002). "Conformational pathways in the gating of Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(9);5999-6004. PMID: 11972047

Koprowski01: Koprowski P, Kubalski A (2001). "Bacterial ion channels and their eukaryotic homologues." Bioessays 23(12);1148-58. PMID: 11746234

Kubalski00: Kubalski A, Koprowski P (2000). "[Bacterial ion canals]." Postepy Hig Med Dosw 54(3);317-27. PMID: 10941266

Kung04: Kung C, Blount P (2004). "Channels in microbes: so many holes to fill." Mol Microbiol 53(2);373-80. PMID: 15228520

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Levin04: Levin G, Blount P (2004). "Cysteine scanning of MscL transmembrane domains reveals residues critical for mechanosensitive channel gating." Biophys J 86(5);2862-70. PMID: 15111403

Levina99: Levina N, Totemeyer S, Stokes NR, Louis P, Jones MA, Booth IR (1999). "Protection of Escherichia coli cells against extreme turgor by activation of MscS and MscL mechanosensitive channels: identification of genes required for MscS activity." EMBO J 1999;18(7);1730-7. PMID: 10202137

Li04c: Li Y, Wray R, Blount P (2004). "Intragenic suppression of gain-of-function mutations in the Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel, MscL." Mol Microbiol 53(2);485-95. PMID: 15228529

Li09d: Li Y, Wray R, Eaton C, Blount P (2009). "An open-pore structure of the mechanosensitive channel MscL derived by determining transmembrane domain interactions upon gating." FASEB J 23(7);2197-204. PMID: 19261722

Martinac01: Martinac B (2001). "Mechanosensitive channels in prokaryotes." Cell Physiol Biochem 11(2);61-76. PMID: 11275684

Maurer00: Maurer JA, Elmore DE, Lester HA, Dougherty DA (2000). "Comparing and contrasting Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mechanosensitive channels (MscL). New gain of function mutations in the loop region." J Biol Chem 275(29);22238-44. PMID: 10801868

Maurer01: Maurer JA, Dougherty DA (2001). "A high-throughput screen for MscL channel activity and mutational phenotyping." Biochim Biophys Acta 1514(2);165-9. PMID: 11557017

Maurer03: Maurer JA, Dougherty DA (2003). "Generation and evaluation of a large mutational library from the Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL: implications for channel gating and evolutionary design." J Biol Chem 278(23);21076-82. PMID: 12670944

Meyer06: Meyer GR, Gullingsrud J, Schulten K, Martinac B (2006). "Molecular dynamics study of MscL interactions with a curved lipid bilayer." Biophys J 91(5);1630-7. PMID: 16751236

Moe05: Moe P, Blount P (2005). "Assessment of potential stimuli for mechano-dependent gating of MscL: effects of pressure, tension, and lipid headgroups." Biochemistry 44(36);12239-44. PMID: 16142922

Moe98: Moe PC, Blount P, Kung C (1998). "Functional and structural conservation in the mechanosensitive channel MscL implicates elements crucial for mechanosensation." Mol Microbiol 28(3);583-92. PMID: 9632260

Nakamaru99: Nakamaru Y, Takahashi Y, Unemoto T, Nakamura T (1999). "Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock." FEBS Lett 444(2-3);170-2. PMID: 10050752

Nguyen05: Nguyen T, Clare B, Guo W, Martinac B (2005). "The effects of parabens on the mechanosensitive channels of E. coli." Eur Biophys J 34(5);389-95. PMID: 15770478

Norman05: Norman C, Liu ZW, Rigby P, Raso A, Petrov Y, Martinac B (2005). "Visualisation of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance in bacteria using confocal microscopy." Eur Biophys J 34(5);396-402. PMID: 15812637

Oakley99: Oakley AJ, Martinac B, Wilce MC (1999). "Structure and function of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance." Protein Sci 1999;8(10);1915-21. PMID: 10548036

Okada02: Okada K, Moe PC, Blount P (2002). "Functional design of bacterial mechanosensitive channels. Comparisons and contrasts illuminated by random mutagenesis." J Biol Chem 277(31);27682-8. PMID: 12015316

Ou98: Ou X, Blount P, Hoffman RJ, Kung C (1998). "One face of a transmembrane helix is crucial in mechanosensitive channel gating." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(19);11471-5. PMID: 9736761

Park04: Park KH, Berrier C, Martinac B, Ghazi A (2004). "Purification and functional reconstitution of N- and C-halves of the MscL channel." Biophys J 86(4);2129-36. PMID: 15041653

Perozo01: Perozo E, Kloda A, Cortes DM, Martinac B (2001). "Site-directed spin-labeling analysis of reconstituted Mscl in the closed state." J Gen Physiol 118(2);193-206. PMID: 11479346

Perozo02: Perozo E, Kloda A, Cortes DM, Martinac B (2002). "Physical principles underlying the transduction of bilayer deformation forces during mechanosensitive channel gating." Nat Struct Biol 9(9);696-703. PMID: 12172537

Perozo02a: Perozo E, Cortes DM, Sompornpisut P, Kloda A, Martinac B (2002). "Open channel structure of MscL and the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive channels." Nature 418(6901);942-8. PMID: 12198539

Perozo03: Perozo E, Rees DC (2003). "Structure and mechanism in prokaryotic mechanosensitive channels." Curr Opin Struct Biol 13(4);432-42. PMID: 12948773

Pivetti03: Pivetti CD, Yen MR, Miller S, Busch W, Tseng YH, Booth IR, Saier MH (2003). "Two families of mechanosensitive channel proteins." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(1);66-85, table of contents. PMID: 12626684

Pop09: Pop OI, Soprova Z, Koningstein G, Scheffers DJ, van Ulsen P, Wickstrom D, de Gier JW, Luirink J (2009). "YidC is required for the assembly of the MscL homopentameric pore." FEBS J 276(17);4891-9. PMID: 19664056

Powl03: Powl AM, East JM, Lee AG (2003). "Lipid-protein interactions studied by introduction of a tryptophan residue: the mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biochemistry 42(48);14306-17. PMID: 14640699

Powl08: Powl AM, East JM, Lee AG (2008). "Anionic phospholipids affect the rate and extent of flux through the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance MscL." Biochemistry 47(14);4317-28. PMID: 18341289

Powl08a: Powl AM, East JM, Lee AG (2008). "Importance of direct interactions with lipids for the function of the mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biochemistry 47(46);12175-84. PMID: 18950196

Price11: Price CE, Kocer A, Kol S, van der Berg JP, Driessen AJ (2011). "In vitro synthesis and oligomerization of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, into a functional ion channel." FEBS Lett 585(1);249-54. PMID: 21134371

Rees00: Rees DC, Chang G, Spencer RH (2000). "Crystallographic analyses of ion channels: lessons and challenges." J Biol Chem 275(2);713-6. PMID: 10625597

Roux02: Roux B (2002). "Theoretical and computational models of ion channels." Curr Opin Struct Biol 12(2);182-9. PMID: 11959495

Sachs02: Sachs F (2002). "Retaining your identity under stress." Nat Struct Biol 9(9);636-7. PMID: 12198480

Saint98: Saint N, Lacapere JJ, Gu LQ, Ghazi A, Martinac B, Rigaud JL (1998). "A hexameric transmembrane pore revealed by two-dimensional crystallization of the large mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 273(24);14667-70. PMID: 9614061

Shapovalov04: Shapovalov G, Lester HA (2004). "Gating transitions in bacterial ion channels measured at 3 microns resolution." J Gen Physiol 124(2);151-61. PMID: 15277576

Spencer02: Spencer RH, Rees DC (2002). "The alpha-helix and the organization and gating of channels." Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 31;207-33. PMID: 11988468

Spencer99: Spencer RH, Chang G, Rees DC (1999). "'Feeling the pressure': structural insights into a gated mechanosensitive channel." Curr Opin Struct Biol 9(4);448-54. PMID: 10449367

Stokes03: Stokes NR, Murray HD, Subramaniam C, Gourse RL, Louis P, Bartlett W, Miller S, Booth IR (2003). "A role for mechanosensitive channels in survival of stationary phase: regulation of channel expression by RpoS." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(26);15959-64. PMID: 14671322

Strop03: Strop P, Bass R, Rees DC (2003). "Prokaryotic mechanosensitive channels." Adv Protein Chem 63;177-209. PMID: 12629971

Sukharev00: Sukharev I (2000). "Pulling the channel in many dimensions." Trends Microbiol 8(1);12-3. PMID: 10637638

Sukharev01: Sukharev S, Durell SR, Guy HR (2001). "Structural models of the MscL gating mechanism." Biophys J 81(2);917-36. PMID: 11463635

Sukharev01a: Sukharev S, Betanzos M, Chiang CS, Guy HR (2001). "The gating mechanism of the large mechanosensitive channel MscL." Nature 409(6821);720-4. PMID: 11217861

Sukharev04: Sukharev S, Anishkin A (2004). "Mechanosensitive channels: what can we learn from 'simple' model systems?." Trends Neurosci 27(6);345-51. PMID: 15165739

Sukharev93: Sukharev SI, Martinac B, Arshavsky VY, Kung C (1993). "Two types of mechanosensitive channels in the Escherichia coli cell envelope: solubilization and functional reconstitution." Biophys J 65(1);177-83. PMID: 7690260

Sukharev94: Sukharev SI, Blount P, Martinac B, Blattner FR, Kung C (1994). "A large-conductance mechanosensitive channel in E. coli encoded by mscL alone." Nature 368(6468);265-8. PMID: 7511799

Sukharev96: Sukharev SI, Blount P, Martinac B, Guy HR, Kung C (1996). "MscL: a mechanosensitive channel in Escherichia coli." Soc Gen Physiol Ser 51;133-41. PMID: 8809939

Sukharev97: Sukharev SI, Blount P, Martinac B, Kung C (1997). "Mechanosensitive channels of Escherichia coli: the MscL gene, protein, and activities." Annu Rev Physiol 1997;59;633-57. PMID: 9074781

Sukharev99: Sukharev S (1999). "Mechanosensitive channels in bacteria as membrane tension reporters." FASEB J 1999;13 Suppl;S55-61. PMID: 10352145

Sukharev99a: Sukharev SI, Schroeder MJ, McCaslin DR (1999). "Stoichiometry of the large conductance bacterial mechanosensitive channel of E. coli. A biochemical study." J Membr Biol 171(3);183-93. PMID: 10501827

Sukharev99b: Sukharev SI, Sigurdson WJ, Kung C, Sachs F (1999). "Energetic and spatial parameters for gating of the bacterial large conductance mechanosensitive channel, MscL." J Gen Physiol 113(4);525-40. PMID: 10102934

Tang06: Tang Y, Cao G, Chen X, Yoo J, Yethiraj A, Cui Q (2006). "A finite element framework for studying the mechanical response of macromolecules: application to the gating of the mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biophys J 91(4);1248-63. PMID: 16731564

Tang08a: Tang Y, Yoo J, Yethiraj A, Cui Q, Chen X (2008). "Gating mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels of large conductance, II: systematic study of conformational transitions." Biophys J 95(2);581-96. PMID: 18390625

Tsai05: Tsai IJ, Liu ZW, Rayment J, Norman C, McKinley A, Martinac B (2005). "The role of the periplasmic loop residue glutamine 65 for MscL mechanosensitivity." Eur Biophys J 34(5);403-12. PMID: 15812636

Turner04a: Turner MS, Sens P (2004). "Gating-by-tilt of mechanically sensitive membrane channels." Phys Rev Lett 93(11);118103. PMID: 15447384

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Ursell07: Ursell T, Huang KC, Peterson E, Phillips R (2007). "Cooperative gating and spatial organization of membrane proteins through elastic interactions." PLoS Comput Biol 3(5);e81. PMID: 17480116

Valadie03: Valadie H, Lacapcre JJ, Sanejouand YH, Etchebest C (2003). "Dynamical properties of the MscL of Escherichia coli: a normal mode analysis." J Mol Biol 332(3);657-74. PMID: 12963374

vandenBogaart07: van den Bogaart G, Krasnikov V, Poolman B (2007). "Dual-color fluorescence-burst analysis to probe protein efflux through the mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biophys J 92(4);1233-40. PMID: 17142294

Wiggins04: Wiggins P, Phillips R (2004). "Analytic models for mechanotransduction: gating a mechanosensitive channel." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(12);4071-6. PMID: 15024097

Wiggins05: Wiggins P, Phillips R (2005). "Membrane-protein interactions in mechanosensitive channels." Biophys J 88(2);880-902. PMID: 15542561

Wood99: Wood JM (1999). "Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63(1);230-62. PMID: 10066837

Yoshimura01: Yoshimura K, Batiza A, Kung C (2001). "Chemically charging the pore constriction opens the mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biophys J 80(5);2198-206. PMID: 11325722

Yoshimura04: Yoshimura K, Nomura T, Sokabe M (2004). "Loss-of-function mutations at the rim of the funnel of mechanosensitive channel MscL." Biophys J 86(4);2113-20. PMID: 15041651

Yoshimura99: Yoshimura K, Batiza A, Schroeder M, Blount P, Kung C (1999). "Hydrophilicity of a single residue within MscL correlates with increased channel mechanosensitivity." Biophys J 1999;77(4);1960-72. PMID: 10512816

Zhang07: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

Zhong14: Zhong D, Blount P (2014). "Electrostatics at the membrane define MscL channel mechanosensitivity and kinetics." FASEB J. PMID: 25223610

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

MendozaVargas09: Mendoza-Vargas A, Olvera L, Olvera M, Grande R, Vega-Alvarado L, Taboada B, Jimenez-Jacinto V, Salgado H, Juarez K, Contreras-Moreira B, Huerta AM, Collado-Vides J, Morett E (2009). "Genome-wide identification of transcription start sites, promoters and transcription factor binding sites in E. coli." PLoS One 4(10);e7526. PMID: 19838305

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Thu Oct 8, 2015, biocyc13.