Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: sulfate adenylyltransferase, CysN subunit

Gene: cysN Accession Numbers: EG10194 (EcoCyc), b2751, ECK2746

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for cysN

Component of: sulfate adenylyltransferase (summary available)

CysN along with CysD are the two subunits which form sulfate adenylyltransferase [Leyh88]. CysN contains a GTP-binding consensus sequence and stimulates the synthesis of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) by a GTPase mechanism [Leyh92]. Sulfate adenylyltransferase is involved in the assimilation of sulfate and catalyzes two reactions, GTP hydrolysis and activation of intracellular sulfate to APS which generates a sulfate-phosphate anhydride linkage. This linkage facilitates an energetically-downhill entry into the subsequent metabolic fates of reduction and group transfer. The rate of APS formation is enhanced by both a protein activator and by GTP hydrolysis [Neuwald92].

Disruption of the cysN gene prevents sulfate activation and decreases expression of the downstream cysC gene [Leyh88].

cysN, along with cysD and cysC, resides in the sulfate activation operon [Leyh92a].

Gene Citations: [Malo90]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [2,872,014 <- 2,873,441] (61.9 centisomes, 223°)
Length: 1428 bp / 475 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 52.558 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 62 kD (experimental) [Leyh88 ]

pI: 5.22

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0009026 , CGSC:18436 , DIP:DIP-513N , EchoBASE:EB0191 , EcoGene:EG10194 , EcoliWiki:b2751 , Mint:MINT-1247685 , ModBase:P23845 , OU-Microarray:b2751 , PortEco:cysN , PR:PRO_000022384 , Pride:P23845 , Protein Model Portal:P23845 , RefSeq:NP_417231 , RegulonDB:EG10194 , SMR:P23845 , String:511145.b2751 , Swiss-Model:P23845 , UniProt:P23845

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000795 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004161 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005225 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009000 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009001 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011779 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00009 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03144 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00315 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00301 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51722

In Paralogous Gene Group: 77 (16 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for cysN

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006790 - sulfur compound metabolic process Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Leyh88]
GO:0000103 - sulfate assimilation Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
GO:0070814 - hydrogen sulfide biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12]
Molecular Function: GO:0003924 - GTPase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Leyh92]
GO:0004781 - sulfate adenylyltransferase (ATP) activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Leyh88]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Leyh88]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0005525 - GTP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a, Leyh92]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016779 - nucleotidyltransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism metabolism of other compounds sulfur metabolism

Essentiality data for cysN knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 0.4% glucose No 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.27 No [Patrick07, Comment 3]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol No 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 No [Joyce06]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Indeterminate 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
No [Feist07, Comment 4]

Last-Curated ? 23-Aug-2013 by Kubo A , SRI International

Subunit of: sulfate adenylyltransferase

Subunit composition of sulfate adenylyltransferase = [CysD]4[CysN]4
         sulfate adenylyltransferase, CysD subunit = CysD (extended summary available)
         sulfate adenylyltransferase, CysN subunit = CysN (summary available)

Sulfate adenylyltransferase is composed of two types of subunits, CysN (53 kDa) and CysD (35 kDa) [Leyh88]. The native (390 kDa) molecular weight suggests that the enzyme is a tetramer of CysD-CysN heterodimers .

The enzyme catalyzes the activation of intracellular sulfate to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS), a reaction that generates a sulfate-phosphate anhydride linkage. This linkage facilitates an energetically-downhill entry into the subsequent metabolic fates of reduction and group transfer. The rate of APS formation is enhanced by both a protein activator and by GTP hydrolysis [Neuwald92]. The intrinsic GTPase Is believed to be the CysN subunit [Leyh92].

Created 20-Sep-2006 by Caspi R , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: sulfate adenylyltransferase

Synonyms: sulfate adenylate transferase, ATP-sulfurylase, sulfurylase, ATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase, adenylylsulfate pyrophosphorylase

EC Number:

sulfate + ATP + H+ <=> adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate + diphosphate

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: superpathway of sulfate assimilation and cysteine biosynthesis , sulfate reduction I (assimilatory) , sulfate activation for sulfonation

Studies using the hydrolysis-resistant nucleotide analogues AMPCPP and GMPPNP demonstrated that GTP hydrolysis precedes scision of the α-β bond of ATP. Product inhibition studies indicate that PPi release occurs prior to the addition of sulfate and APS formation [Liu94c].

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of sulfate adenylyltransferase, CysN subunit with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Conserved-Region 25 -> 239
UniProt: tr-type G.
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 34 -> 41
UniProt: GTP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Protein-Segment 92 -> 96
UniProt: G2; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest.
Protein-Segment 113 -> 116
UniProt: G3; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest.
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 113 -> 117
UniProt: GTP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 168 -> 171
UniProt: GTP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Protein-Segment 206 -> 208
UniProt: G5; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest.

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b2751 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10194; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Leyh88: Leyh TS, Taylor JC, Markham GD (1988). "The sulfate activation locus of Escherichia coli K12: cloning, genetic, and enzymatic characterization." J Biol Chem 263(5);2409-16. PMID: 2828368

Leyh92: Leyh TS, Suo Y (1992). "GTPase-mediated activation of ATP sulfurylase." J Biol Chem 1992;267(1);542-5. PMID: 1730615

Leyh92a: Leyh TS, Vogt TF, Suo Y (1992). "The DNA sequence of the sulfate activation locus from Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem 1992;267(15);10405-10. PMID: 1316900

Liu94c: Liu C, Martin E, Leyh TS (1994). "GTPase activation of ATP sulfurylase: the mechanism." Biochemistry 33(8);2042-7. PMID: 8117661

Malo90: Malo MS, Loughlin RE (1990). "Promoter elements and regulation of expression of the cysD gene of Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 1990;87(1);127-31. PMID: 2185135

Neuwald92: Neuwald AF, Krishnan BR, Brikun I, Kulakauskas S, Suziedelis K, Tomcsanyi T, Leyh TS, Berg DE (1992). "cysQ, a gene needed for cysteine synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 only during aerobic growth." J Bacteriol 1992;174(2);415-25. PMID: 1729235

Patrick07: Patrick WM, Quandt EM, Swartzlander DB, Matsumura I (2007). "Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability." Mol Biol Evol 24(12);2716-22. PMID: 17884825

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt14a: UniProt Consortium (2014). "UniProt version 2014-08 released on 2014-08-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Kredich92: Kredich NM (1992). "The molecular basis for positive regulation of cys promoters in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 6(19);2747-53. PMID: 1435253

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Wed Oct 7, 2015, BIOCYC14A.