Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: dicarboxylate transporter DcuA

Gene: dcuA Accession Numbers: EG11225 (EcoCyc), b4138, ECK4132

Synonyms: genA

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for dcuA

The DcuA transporter is one of three transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of C4-dicarboxylates such as fumarate under anaerobic conditions. DcuA and DcuB are the prototype representatives of the Dcu family of dicarboxylate transporters. DcuA and DcuB are homologous transporters which function as independent and mutually redundant C4-dicarboxylate (aspartate, malate, fumarate and succinate) transporters. The third anaerobic dicarboxylate transporter is DcuC. Mutations in either dcuA or dcuB did not greatly affect anaerobic growth on C4 dicarboxylates, but a double dcuA dcuB mutant was severely impaired [Six94]. Whole cell transport experiments have indicated that both DcuA and DcuB catalyse C4 dicarboxylate exchange, for instance fumarate uptake in exchange for succinate with a Km for fumarate of approx 30 μM [Six94]. Transport assays have shown exchange is favored over uptake for DcuA, DcuB, and DcuC [Zientz96]. Exchange has been determined to be an electroneutral, while uptake and efflux require proton symport [Engel94].

dcuA is located downstream of aspA encoding aspartase and dcuB is upstream of fumB encoding anaerobic fumarase implying their physiological functions may be to catalyze aspartate:fumarate and fumarate:malate exchange during the anaerobic utilization of aspartate and fumarate, respectively [Six94]. However, their transport specificities do not fully support this notion. Expression of dcuA has been shown to be constitutive while expression of dcuB is induced anaerobically by FNR and by C-4 dicarboxylates [Golby98]. DcuA has 10 transmembrane helices with the N- and C-terminal residues in the periplasm [Golby98a].

Citations: [Engel92a]

Gene Citations: [Goh05]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [4,363,495 <- 4,364,796] (94.05 centisomes, 339°)
Length: 1302 bp / 433 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 45.751 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0013546 , CGSC:34476 , EchoBASE:EB1207 , EcoGene:EG11225 , EcoliWiki:b4138 , OU-Microarray:b4138 , PortEco:dcuA , PR:PRO_000022412 , Pride:P0ABN5 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABN5 , RefSeq:NP_418561 , RegulonDB:EG11225 , SMR:P0ABN5 , String:511145.b4138 , UniProt:P0ABN5

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004668 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03605

In Paralogous Gene Group: 573 (2 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for dcuA

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015740 - C4-dicarboxylate transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Zientz96]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0015556 - C4-dicarboxylate transmembrane transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Zhang07]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Six94]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for dcuA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Enzymatic reaction of: transport of a C4-dicarboxylate (dicarboxylate transporter DcuA)

Transport reaction diagram for transport of a C4-dicarboxylate

Transport reaction diagram for transport of a C4-dicarboxylate

Transport reaction diagram for transport of a C4-dicarboxylate

Transport reaction diagram for transport of a C4-dicarboxylate

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of dicarboxylate transporter DcuA with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 1 -> 18
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 20 -> 37
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 54 -> 71
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 86 -> 103
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 133 -> 147
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 229 -> 246
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 265 -> 282
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 293 -> 310
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 333 -> 350
UniProt: Helical.
Sequence-Conflict 355 -> 356
[Takagi85, UniProt10a]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; CAA26176);
Transmembrane-Region 356 -> 373
UniProt: Helical.
Sequence-Conflict 365 -> 367
[Takagi85, UniProt10a]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6);

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b4138 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG11225; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Engel92a: Engel P, Kramer R, Unden G (1992). "Anaerobic fumarate transport in Escherichia coli by an fnr-dependent dicarboxylate uptake system which is different from the aerobic dicarboxylate uptake system." J Bacteriol 174(17);5533-9. PMID: 1512189

Engel94: Engel P, Kramer R, Unden G (1994). "Transport of C4-dicarboxylates by anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. Energetics and mechanism of exchange, uptake and efflux." Eur J Biochem 222(2);605-14. PMID: 8020497

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Goh05: Goh EB, Bledsoe PJ, Chen LL, Gyaneshwar P, Stewart V, Igo MM (2005). "Hierarchical control of anaerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12: the nitrate-responsive NarX-NarL regulatory system represses synthesis of the fumarate-responsive DcuS-DcuR regulatory system." J Bacteriol 187(14);4890-9. PMID: 15995204

Golby98: Golby P, Kelly DJ, Guest JR, Andrews SC (1998). "Transcriptional regulation and organization of the dcuA and dcuB genes, encoding homologous anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transporters in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6586-96. PMID: 9852003

Golby98a: Golby P, Kelly DJ, Guest JR, Andrews SC (1998). "Topological analysis of DcuA, an anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transporter of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 180(18);4821-7. PMID: 9733683

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Six94: Six S, Andrews SC, Unden G, Guest JR (1994). "Escherichia coli possesses two homologous anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate membrane transporters (DcuA and DcuB) distinct from the aerobic dicarboxylate transport system (Dct)." J Bacteriol 1994;176(21);6470-8. PMID: 7961398

Takagi85: Takagi JS, Ida N, Tokushige M, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y (1985). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the aspartase gene of Escherichia coli W." Nucleic Acids Res 1985;13(6);2063-74. PMID: 2987841

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Zhang07: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

Zientz96: Zientz E, Six S, Unden G (1996). "Identification of a third secondary carrier (DcuC) for anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transport in Escherichia coli: roles of the three Dcu carriers in uptake and exchange." J Bacteriol 1996;178(24);7241-7. PMID: 8955408

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Chung13: Chung D, Park D, Myers K, Grass J, Kiley P, Landick R, Keles S (2013). "dPeak: high resolution identification of transcription factor binding sites from PET and SET ChIP-Seq data." PLoS Comput Biol 9(10);e1003246. PMID: 24146601

Gosset04: Gosset G, Zhang Z, Nayyar S, Cuevas WA, Saier MH (2004). "Transcriptome analysis of Crp-dependent catabolite control of gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(11);3516-24. PMID: 15150239

Spiro91: Spiro S, Guest JR (1991). "Adaptive responses to oxygen limitation in Escherichia coli." Trends Biochem Sci 1991;16(8);310-4. PMID: 1957353

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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