Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: BolA DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Gene: bolA Accession Numbers: EG10125 (EcoCyc), b0435, ECK0429

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for bolA

Component of: Grx4-BolA complex (summary available)

BolA regulates the transcription of genes involved in the morphology of the cell to confer protection to the cell, specifically under stress conditions and during stationary phase [Santos02, Freire09]. Its overexpression produces round-shaped cells, alters elongation and cell septation [Aldea88, Santos02], induces biofilm formation [Vieira04, Adnan11, Dressaire15], involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli [Dressaire15], impairs cell growth rate [Guinote11], and alters the properties of the outer membrane [Freire06a]. Under poor growth conditions, BolA is essential for normal cell morphology during both the exponential and stationary growth phases and in response to sudden carbon starvation [Santos02].

The transcription expression analysis of some genes with BolA mutants and the presence of a putative helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding suggest that BolA is a transcriptional regulator, although its regulatory mechanism and specific DNA-binding site remain to be determined [Aldea89]. On the other hand, structural, sequence, and physical interaction analyses show that BolA could be a reductase that interacts with glutaredoxin [Huynen05].

BolA is a member of the BolA family, which is widely distributed among proteobacteria and eukaryotes [Huynen05].

The expression of bolA is regulated at the transcriptional level and at posttranscriptional levels. Its transcription is induced under stationary phase [Lange91a] and under different stress conditions, such as carbon starvation, osmotic stress, heat shock, acidic stress, and oxidative stress [Santos99]. On the other hand, bolA mRNA stability during glucose starvation is enhanced in the presence of RNase III function [Freire06].

Based on ChIP-seq and transcriptomic analysis, it was shown that BolA is a protein with high affinity to DNA and is able to regulate many genes on a genome-wide scale [Dressaire15]. BolA regulates flagellum and curli biosynthesis pathways. It is a transcriptional switch that turns off/on mobility and biofilm development, respectively [Dressaire15]. BolA modulates the switch from a planktonic to a sessile lifestyle [Dressaire15]. Overexpression of BolA favors biofilm formation, which involves the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli [Dressaire15].

Review: [Guinote14].

Gene Citations: [Bohannon91]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [453,696 -> 454,013] (9.78 centisomes, 35°)
Length: 318 bp / 105 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 11.994 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0001508 , CGSC:31032 , DIP:DIP-47926N , EchoBASE:EB0123 , EcoGene:EG10125 , EcoliWiki:b0435 , Mint:MINT-1238063 , ModBase:P0ABE2 , OU-Microarray:b0435 , PortEco:bolA , PR:PRO_000022230 , Pride:P0ABE2 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABE2 , RefSeq:NP_414969 , RegulonDB:EG10125 , SMR:P0ABE2 , String:511145.b0435 , Swiss-Model:P0ABE2 , UniProt:P0ABE2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002634 , PDB:Structure:2DHM , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01722

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for bolA

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, Aldea89, Santos02]
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Butland05]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations osmotic pressure
cell processes cell division
cell structure murein
information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level repressor

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Regulated Transcription Units (2 total): ?


Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Essentiality data for bolA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Last-Curated ? 27-Apr-2009 by Gama-Castro S , UNAM

Subunit of: Grx4-BolA complex

Subunit composition of Grx4-BolA complex = [BolA][GrxD]
         BolA DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator = BolA (extended summary available)
         glutaredoxin 4 = GrxD (extended summary available)

The heterodimeric Grx4-BolA complex can bind an intact [2Fe-2S] cluster and transfer it to the model acceptor protein ferredoxin, although much less efficiently than the Grx4 homodimer [Yeung11].

Created 14-Sep-2011 by Keseler I , SRI International
Last-Curated ? 14-Sep-2011 by Keseler I , SRI International

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


Peter D. Karp on Wed Jan 18, 2006:
Gene left-end position adjusted based on analysis performed in the 2005 E. coli annotation update [Riley06 ].
10/20/97 Gene b0435 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10125; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Adnan11: Adnan M, Morton G, Hadi S (2011). "Analysis of rpoS and bolA gene expression under various stress-induced environments in planktonic and biofilm phase using 2(-ΔΔCT) method." Mol Cell Biochem 357(1-2);275-82. PMID: 21630090

Aldea88: Aldea M, Hernandez-Chico C, de la Campa AG, Kushner SR, Vicente M (1988). "Identification, cloning, and expression of bolA, an ftsZ-dependent morphogene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 170(11);5169-76. PMID: 3053647

Aldea89: Aldea M, Garrido T, Hernandez-Chico C, Vicente M, Kushner SR (1989). "Induction of a growth-phase-dependent promoter triggers transcription of bolA, an Escherichia coli morphogene." EMBO J 8(12);3923-31. PMID: 2684651

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bohannon91: Bohannon DE, Connell N, Keener J, Tormo A, Espinosa-Urgel M, Zambrano MM, Kolter R (1991). "Stationary-phase-inducible "gearbox" promoters: differential effects of katF mutations and role of sigma 70." J Bacteriol 1991;173(14);4482-92. PMID: 1906064

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dressaire15: Dressaire C, Moreira RN, Barahona S, Alves de Matos AP, Arraiano CM (2015). "BolA is a transcriptional switch that turns off motility and turns on biofilm development." MBio 6(1);e02352-14. PMID: 25691594

Freire06: Freire P, Amaral JD, Santos JM, Arraiano CM (2006). "Adaptation to carbon starvation: RNase III ensures normal expression levels of bolA1p mRNA and sigma(S)." Biochimie 88(3-4);341-6. PMID: 16309817

Freire06a: Freire P, Vieira HL, Furtado AR, de Pedro MA, Arraiano CM (2006). "Effect of the morphogene bolA on the permeability of the Escherichia coli outer membrane." FEMS Microbiol Lett 260(1);106-11. PMID: 16790025

Freire09: Freire P, Moreira RN, Arraiano CM (2009). "BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels." J Mol Biol 385(5);1345-51. PMID: 19111750

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Guinote11: Guinote IB, Matos R, Freire P, Arraiano C (2011). "BolA Affects Cell Growth, and Binds to the Promoters of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 5 and 6 and Regulates Their Expression." J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(3);243-51. PMID: 21464593

Guinote14: Guinote IB, Moreira RN, Barahona S, Freire P, Vicente M, Arraiano CM (2014). "Breaking through the stress barrier: the role of BolA in Gram-negative survival." World J Microbiol Biotechnol 30(10);2559-66. PMID: 25038865

Huynen05: Huynen MA, Spronk CA, Gabaldon T, Snel B (2005). "Combining data from genomes, Y2H and 3D structure indicates that BolA is a reductase interacting with a glutaredoxin." FEBS Lett 579(3);591-6. PMID: 15670813

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Lange91a: Lange R, Hengge-Aronis R (1991). "Growth phase-regulated expression of bolA and morphology of stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells are controlled by the novel sigma factor sigma S." J Bacteriol 173(14);4474-81. PMID: 1648559

Riley06: Riley M, Abe T, Arnaud MB, Berlyn MK, Blattner FR, Chaudhuri RR, Glasner JD, Horiuchi T, Keseler IM, Kosuge T, Mori H, Perna NT, Plunkett G, Rudd KE, Serres MH, Thomas GH, Thomson NR, Wishart D, Wanner BL (2006). "Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005." Nucleic Acids Res 34(1);1-9. PMID: 16397293

Santos02: Santos JM, Lobo M, Matos AP, De Pedro MA, Arraiano CM (2002). "The gene bolA regulates dacA (PBP5), dacC (PBP6) and ampC (AmpC), promoting normal morphology in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 45(6);1729-40. PMID: 12354237

Santos99: Santos JM, Freire P, Vicente M, Arraiano CM (1999). "The stationary-phase morphogene bolA from Escherichia coli is induced by stress during early stages of growth." Mol Microbiol 32(4);789-98. PMID: 10361282

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vieira04: Vieira HL, Freire P, Arraiano CM (2004). "Effect of Escherichia coli morphogene bolA on biofilms." Appl Environ Microbiol 70(9);5682-4. PMID: 15345459

Yeung11: Yeung N, Gold B, Liu NL, Prathapam R, Sterling HJ, Willams ER, Butland G (2011). "The E. coli monothiol glutaredoxin GrxD forms homodimeric and heterodimeric FeS cluster containing complexes." Biochemistry 50(41);8957-69. PMID: 21899261

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Barth95: Barth M, Marschall C, Muffler A, Fischer D, Hengge-Aronis R (1995). "Role for the histone-like protein H-NS in growth phase-dependent and osmotic regulation of sigma S and many sigma S-dependent genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 177(12);3455-64. PMID: 7768855

Dong11: Dong T, Yu R, Schellhorn H (2011). "Antagonistic regulation of motility and transcriptome expression by RpoN and RpoS in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 79(2);375-86. PMID: 21219458

Nguyen97: Nguyen LH, Burgess RR (1997). "Comparative analysis of the interactions of Escherichia coli sigma S and sigma 70 RNA polymerase holoenzyme with the stationary-phase-specific bolAp1 promoter." Biochemistry 36(7);1748-54. PMID: 9048558

Yamamoto00: Yamamoto K, Nagura R, Tanabe H, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Utsumi R (2000). "Negative regulation of the bolA1p of Escherichia coli K-12 by the transcription factor OmpR for osmolarity response genes." FEMS Microbiol Lett 186(2);257-62. PMID: 10802181

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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