Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: enterochelin esterase

Gene: fes Accession Numbers: EG10299 (EcoCyc), b0585, ECK0577

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for fes

Enterochelin (enterobactin) esterase (Fes) catalyzes the hydrolysis of both enterobactin and ferric enterobactin. The enzyme produces the linear 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine trimer as well as the dimer and monomer [OBrien71, Langman72, Greenwood78, Winkelmann94]. Hydrolysis of ferric enterobactin is less efficient than hydrolysis of unliganded enterobactin [Brickman92].

Expression of fes is increased by iron limitation [Pettis87, Pettis88]; repression under iron-replete conditions is mediated by Fur [Hunt94, Escolar98]. fes is more highly expressed at 37°C than at 23°C during growth in minimal media; expression under iron-depleted conditions is high at both growth temperatures [WhiteZiegler07].

When grown under conditions of iron limitation, fes mutants require the presence of added citrate [Langman72]. A fes mutant is more sensitive to near-UV radiation than wild type [Hoerter96] and is highly sensitive to the ferrous iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl [Wang11h]. A fes insertion mutant shows a SpoT-dependent increase in the ppGpp pool [Vinella05].

Fes: "ferric enterochelin esterase" [Langman72]

Citations: [Porra72, Wayne76, Konisky76, Laird80, Plaha87]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [612,038 -> 613,162] (13.19 centisomes, 47°)
Length: 1125 bp / 374 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 42.57 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 44 kD (experimental) [Fleming85 ], 43 kD (experimental)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0002019 , CGSC:780 , DIP:DIP-9598N , EchoBASE:EB0295 , EcoGene:EG10299 , EcoliWiki:b0585 , ModBase:P13039 , OU-Microarray:b0585 , PortEco:fes , PR:PRO_000022606 , Pride:P13039 , Protein Model Portal:P13039 , RefSeq:NP_415117 , RegulonDB:EG10299 , SMR:P13039 , String:511145.b0585 , Swiss-Model:P13039 , UniProt:P13039

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000801 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013783 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014756 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR021764 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR029058 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00756 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF11806

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for fes

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0046214 - enterobactin catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Winkelmann94]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006826 - iron ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0055072 - iron ion homeostasis Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0008849 - enterochelin esterase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Langman72, Brickman92, Greenwood78]
GO:0005506 - iron ion binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations Fe aquisition
metabolism central intermediary metabolism incorporation of metal ions

Essentiality data for fes knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 0.4% glucose No 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.27 No [Patrick07, Comment 3]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol No 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 No [Joyce06]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Last-Curated ? 28-Nov-2011 by Keseler I , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: ferric enterobactin esterase (enterochelin esterase)

EC Number: 3.1.1.-

ferric enterobactin complex + H2O <=> ferric (2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

The products of the reaction include the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine (DHBS) monomer, linear dimer (DHBS)2, and linear trimer (DHBS)3 of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine subunits [Winkelmann94].

Enzymatic reaction of: enterochelin esterase

Synonyms: enterobactin esterase, enterochelin hydrolase

EC Number: 3.1.1.-

enterobactin + 3 H2O <=> 3 N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine + 3 H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

Citations: [OBrien71]

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b0585 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10299; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Brickman92: Brickman TJ, McIntosh MA (1992). "Overexpression and purification of ferric enterobactin esterase from Escherichia coli. Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis of enterobactin and its iron complex." J Biol Chem 267(17);12350-5. PMID: 1534808

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Escolar98: Escolar L, Perez-Martin J, de Lorenzo V (1998). "Coordinated repression in vitro of the divergent fepA-fes promoters of Escherichia coli by the iron uptake regulation (Fur) protein." J Bacteriol 180(9);2579-82. PMID: 9573216

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Fleming85: Fleming TP, Nahlik MS, Neilands JB, McIntosh MA (1985). "Physical and genetic characterization of cloned enterobactin genomic sequences from Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 34(1);47-54. PMID: 3159622

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Greenwood78: Greenwood KT, Luke RK (1978). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of enterochelin and its iron complex in Escherichia Coli K-12. Properties of enterochelin esterase." Biochim Biophys Acta 525(1);209-18. PMID: 150859

Hoerter96: Hoerter J, Pierce A, Troupe C, Epperson J, Eisenstark A (1996). "Role of enterobactin and intracellular iron in cell lethality during near-UV irradiation in Escherichia coli." Photochem Photobiol 64(3);537-41. PMID: 8806229

Hunt94: Hunt MD, Pettis GS, McIntosh MA (1994). "Promoter and operator determinants for fur-mediated iron regulation in the bidirectional fepA-fes control region of the Escherichia coli enterobactin gene system." J Bacteriol 176(13);3944-55. PMID: 8021177

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Konisky76: Konisky J, Soucek S, Frick K, Davies JK, Hammond C (1976). "Relationship between the transport of iron and the amount of specific colicin Ia membrane receptors in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 127(1);249-57. PMID: 132428

Laird80: Laird AJ, Ribbons DW, Woodrow GC, Young IG (1980). "Bacteriophage Mu-mediated gene transposition and in vitro cloning of the enterochelin gene cluster of Escherichia coli." Gene 11(3-4);347-57. PMID: 6260579

Langman72: Langman L, Young IG, Frost GE, Rosenberg H, Gibson F (1972). "Enterochelin system of iron transport in Escherichia coli: mutations affecting ferric-enterochelin esterase." J Bacteriol 112(3);1142-9. PMID: 4565531

OBrien71: O'Brien IG, Cox GB, Gibson F (1971). "Enterochelin hydrolysis and iron metabolism in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 237(3);537-49. PMID: 4330269

Patrick07: Patrick WM, Quandt EM, Swartzlander DB, Matsumura I (2007). "Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability." Mol Biol Evol 24(12);2716-22. PMID: 17884825

Pettis87: Pettis GS, McIntosh MA (1987). "Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin cistron entF and coupled expression of entF and the fes gene." J Bacteriol 1987;169(9);4154-62. PMID: 3040679

Pettis88: Pettis GS, Brickman TJ, McIntosh MA (1988). "Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli fepA-fes enterobactin region. Identification of a unique iron-regulated bidirectional promoter." J Biol Chem 263(35);18857-63. PMID: 2974033

Plaha87: Plaha DS, Rogers HJ (1987). "Effect of osmotic shock and shearing forces on ferric enterochelin transport in Escherichia coli K12." J Gen Microbiol 133 ( Pt 5);1227-34. PMID: 2958600

Porra72: Porra RJ, Langman L, Young IG, Gibson F (1972). "The role of ferric enterochelin esterase in enterochelin-mediated iron transport and ferrochelatase activity in Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 153(1);74-8. PMID: 4568262

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vinella05: Vinella D, Albrecht C, Cashel M, D'Ari R (2005). "Iron limitation induces SpoT-dependent accumulation of ppGpp in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 56(4);958-70. PMID: 15853883

Wang11h: Wang S, Wu Y, Outten FW (2011). "Fur and the novel regulator YqjI control transcription of the ferric reductase gene yqjH in E. coli." J Bacteriol 193(2):563-74. PMID: 21097627

Wayne76: Wayne R, Frick K, Neilands JB (1976). "Siderophore protection against colicins M, B, V, and Ia in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 126(1);7-12. PMID: 131121

WhiteZiegler07: White-Ziegler CA, Malhowski AJ, Young S (2007). "Human body temperature (37degrees C) increases the expression of iron, carbohydrate, and amino acid utilization genes in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 189(15);5429-40. PMID: 17526711

Winkelmann94: Winkelmann G, Cansier A, Beck W, Jung G (1994). "HPLC separation of enterobactin and linear 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine derivatives: a study on mutants of Escherichia coli defective in regulation (fur), esterase (fes) and transport (fepA)." Biometals 7(2);149-54. PMID: 8148617

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Chen07: Chen Z, Lewis KA, Shultzaberger RK, Lyakhov IG, Zheng M, Doan B, Storz G, Schneider TD (2007). "Discovery of Fur binding site clusters in Escherichia coli by information theory models." Nucleic Acids Res 35(20);6762-77. PMID: 17921503

Constantinidou06: Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Griffiths L, Patel MD, Penn CW, Cole JA, Overton TW (2006). "A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth." J Biol Chem 281(8);4802-15. PMID: 16377617

Kumar11: Kumar R, Shimizu K (2011). "Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures." Microb Cell Fact 10;3. PMID: 21272324

Newman99: Newman DL, Shapiro JA (1999). "Differential fiu-lacZ fusion regulation linked to Escherichia coli colony development." Mol Microbiol 33(1);18-32. PMID: 10411720

Vassinova00: Vassinova N, Kozyrev D (2000). "A method for direct cloning of fur-regulated genes: identification of seven new fur-regulated loci in Escherichia coli." Microbiology 146 Pt 12;3171-82. PMID: 11101675

Zhang05: Zhang Z, Gosset G, Barabote R, Gonzalez CS, Cuevas WA, Saier MH (2005). "Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 187(3);980-90. PMID: 15659676

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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