Pathway Tools
Intro Tutorial
discounted registration ends Sept 5, 2015 (Sat)
Pathway Tools
Intro Tutorial
discounted registration ends Sept 5, 2015 (Sat)
Pathway Tools
Intro Tutorial
discounted registration ends Sept 5, 2015 (Sat)
Pathway Tools
Intro Tutorial
discounted registration ends Sept 5, 2015 (Sat)
Pathway Tools
Intro Tutorial
discounted registration ends Sept 5, 2015 (Sat)

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: RecG DNA helicase

Gene: recG Accession Numbers: EG10829 (EcoCyc), b3652, ECK3642

Synonyms: radC, spoV

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for recG

RecG is a DNA helicase involved in double-strand break repair and protecting against aberrant DNA replication following replication fork collisions.

RecG catalyzes branch migration on forked DNA structures [Courcelle03, Whitby94]. Studies in which double-strand breaks are induced show that double-strand break repair can proceed via two recombination pathways. Both pathways require RecBCD and RecA, but one depends on the resolvase enzyme, RuvABC, while the other instead relies on RecG.

RecG helicase binds the junctions formed as recombinational intermediates (Holliday junctions) and resolves them by promoting branch migration in a process termed "strand extrusion" [Kuzminov99]. RecG shows an affinity for three-way junctions and is thought to resolve them by translocation, disrupting RecA-promoted pairing [McGlynn97].

The regulation of recG has been described. Transcription is induced by the CreBC two component system in minimal medium growth conditions [Avison01]. In ruv mutants, the RecG junction resolution pathway can be stimulated by the expression of RusA, a resolvase whose gene resides on a cryptic prophage [Mandal93, Kuzminov99].

Mutants lacking RecG function allow constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR or SDR), that is DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis. They also exhibit an absolute requirement for Pol I DNA polymerase activity. They are lethal in combination with mutants in rnhA, another gene whose absence allows cSDR [Hong95]. recG mutants are somewhat more susceptible to DNA damage [Courcelle03, Whitby94]. In the specific case of UV irradiation, recG mutants lead to a PriA-dependent pathological DNA replication cascade, most likely through repeated generation of new replication forks [Rudolph09]. ΔrecG mutants have a high incidence of extra replication initiation in the terminus area - this replication is the result of PriA-PriB mediated loading of DnaB at a branched DNA structure that forms in the absence of RecG [Rudolph13].

Review: [Rudolph10]

Citations: [Wardrope09, Wendel14]

Gene Citations: [Kalman92]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [3,823,233 -> 3,825,314] (82.4 centisomes, 297°)
Length: 2082 bp / 693 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 76.43 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0011939 , CGSC:307 , DIP:DIP-10653N , EchoBASE:EB0822 , EcoGene:EG10829 , EcoliWiki:b3652 , Mint:MINT-1301344 , ModBase:P24230 , OU-Microarray:b3652 , PortEco:recG , PR:PRO_000023702 , Pride:P24230 , Protein Model Portal:P24230 , RefSeq:NP_418109 , RegulonDB:EG10829 , SMR:P24230 , String:511145.b3652 , UniProt:P24230

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001650 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004365 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004609 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011545 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012340 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014001 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00270 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00271 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01336 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51192 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51194 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00487 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00490

In Paralogous Gene Group: 502 (2 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for recG

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0032508 - DNA duplex unwinding Inferred from experiment [Whitby94]
GO:0006281 - DNA repair Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0006310 - DNA recombination Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0006974 - cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0010501 - RNA secondary structure unwinding Inferred by computational analysis [Gaudet10]
Molecular Function: GO:0004003 - ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Lloyd93]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0003676 - nucleic acid binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0004004 - ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity Inferred by computational analysis [Gaudet10]
GO:0004386 - helicase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016787 - hydrolase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Watt07]
GO:0009379 - Holliday junction helicase complex Inferred from experiment [Lloyd93]

MultiFun Terms: information transfer DNA related DNA replication

Essentiality data for recG knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Enzymatic reaction of: DNA helicase

EC Number: 3.6.1.-

a DNA with unresolved recombinational or Holliday junctions, created by RecA <=> a DNA segment

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Reversibility of this reaction is unspecified.

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of RecG DNA helicase with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Conserved-Region 283 -> 448
UniProt: Helicase ATP-binding;
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 296 -> 303
UniProt: ATP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Protein-Segment 397 -> 400
UniProt: DEQH box; Sequence Annotation Type: short sequence motif.
Mutagenesis-Variant 411 -> 693
[Lombardo00, UniProt11a]
UniProt: In radC102; causes mild UV and X-ray sensitivity.
Conserved-Region 482 -> 628
UniProt: Helicase C-terminal;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3652 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10829; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Avison01: Avison MB, Horton RE, Walsh TR, Bennett PM (2001). "Escherichia coli CreBC is a global regulator of gene expression that responds to growth in minimal media." J Biol Chem 276(29);26955-61. PMID: 11350954

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Courcelle03: Courcelle J, Hanawalt PC (2003). "RecA-dependent recovery of arrested DNA replication forks." Annu Rev Genet 37;611-46. PMID: 14616075

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Hong95: Hong X, Cadwell GW, Kogoma T (1995). "Escherichia coli RecG and RecA proteins in R-loop formation." EMBO J 14(10);2385-92. PMID: 7774596

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kalman92: Kalman M, Murphy H, Cashel M (1992). "The nucleotide sequence of recG, the distal spo operon gene in Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 110(1);95-9. PMID: 1544582

Kuzminov99: Kuzminov A (1999). "Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63(4);751-813, table of contents. PMID: 10585965

Lloyd93: Lloyd RG, Sharples GJ (1993). "Dissociation of synthetic Holliday junctions by E. coli RecG protein." EMBO J 12(1);17-22. PMID: 8428576

Lombardo00: Lombardo MJ, Rosenberg SM (2000). "radC102 of Escherichia coli is an allele of recG." J Bacteriol 182(22);6287-91. PMID: 11053371

Mandal93: Mandal TN, Mahdi AA, Sharples GJ, Lloyd RG (1993). "Resolution of Holliday intermediates in recombination and DNA repair: indirect suppression of ruvA, ruvB, and ruvC mutations." J Bacteriol 175(14);4325-34. PMID: 8331065

McGlynn97: McGlynn P, Al-Deib AA, Liu J, Marians KJ, Lloyd RG (1997). "The DNA replication protein PriA and the recombination protein RecG bind D-loops." J Mol Biol 270(2);212-21. PMID: 9236123

Rudolph09: Rudolph CJ, Upton AL, Harris L, Lloyd RG (2009). "Pathological replication in cells lacking RecG DNA translocase." Mol Microbiol 73(3):352-66. PMID: 19538444

Rudolph10: Rudolph CJ, Upton AL, Briggs GS, Lloyd RG (2010). "Is RecG a general guardian of the bacterial genome?." DNA Repair (Amst) 9(3);210-23. PMID: 20093100

Rudolph13: Rudolph CJ, Upton AL, Stockum A, Nieduszynski CA, Lloyd RG (2013). "Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide." Nature 500(7464);608-11. PMID: 23892781

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wardrope09: Wardrope L, Okely E, Leach D (2009). "Resolution of joint molecules by RuvABC and RecG following cleavage of the Escherichia coli chromosome by EcoKI." PLoS One 4(8);e6542. PMID: 19657385

Watt07: Watt RM, Wang J, Leong M, Kung HF, Cheah KS, Liu D, Danchin A, Huang JD (2007). "Visualizing the proteome of Escherichia coli: an efficient and versatile method for labeling chromosomal coding DNA sequences (CDSs) with fluorescent protein genes." Nucleic Acids Res 35(6);e37. PMID: 17272300

Wendel14: Wendel BM, Courcelle CT, Courcelle J (2014). "Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(46);16454-9. PMID: 25368150

Whitby94: Whitby MC, Vincent SD, Lloyd RG (1994). "Branch migration of Holliday junctions: identification of RecG protein as a junction specific DNA helicase." EMBO J 13(21);5220-8. PMID: 7957087

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Gentry93: Gentry D, Bengra C, Ikehara K, Cashel M (1993). "Guanylate kinase of Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem 1993;268(19);14316-21. PMID: 8390989

Lemke11: Lemke JJ, Sanchez-Vazquez P, Burgos HL, Hedberg G, Ross W, Gourse RL (2011). "Direct regulation of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein promoters by the transcription factors ppGpp and DksA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(14);5712-7. PMID: 21402902

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Wed Sep 2, 2015, biocyc11.