Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: MlrA DNA binding transcriptional activator

Gene: mlrA Accession Numbers: EG12008 (EcoCyc), b2127, ECK2119

Synonyms: yehV

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for mlrA

MlrA is a regulator of curli production in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain and in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [Brown01]. Shiga toxin-encoding prophages have been observed to integrate at the mlrA gene of enterohemorrhagic E. coli [Yokoyama00].

MlrA is a member of the MerR family, containing the conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain present in members of this family [Brown01, Ogasawara10]. On the other hand, its C-terminal domain, probably used by a yet-to-be-identified effector, showed no similarity to any of the hitherto-characterized MerR family members [Ogasawara10].

MlrA binds an AAAGTTGTACA(12N)TGCACAATTTT palindromic sequence and probably induces DNA underwinding, as in the case of MerR [Ogasawara10]. Based on the site identified on the csgDp1 promoter, sites for another four genes were identified, two of which are transcriptional regulators [Ogasawara10]. MlrA is found at a higher level in the hierarchy of the transcription factor network [Ogasawara10, Ishihama10].

Expression of the mlrA gene is RpoS-regulated in an avian pathogenic E. coli strain [Brown01].

MlrA is part of a signaling cascade that controls curli biosynthesis, in which c-di-GMP regulates through the diguanylate cyclase/phosphodiesterase (DGC/PDE) pair YegH/YhjH (module I) and the activity of the YdaM/YciR pair (module II), which forms a signaling complex with MlrA. Gmr functions as a connector and a trigger enzyme in local c-di-GMP signaling; its direct inhibition of YdaM is relieved when it binds and degrades c-di-GMP, allowing YdaM to activate the transcription factor MlrA [Lindenberg13].

MlrA: "MerR-like regulator A" [Brown01]

Citations: [Shaikh03]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [2,212,888 -> 2,213,619] (47.69 centisomes, 172°)
Length: 732 bp / 243 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 28.046 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0007030 , EchoBASE:EB1946 , EcoGene:EG12008 , EcoliWiki:b2127 , ModBase:P33358 , OU-Microarray:b2127 , PortEco:mlrA , PR:PRO_000023244 , Pride:P33358 , Protein Model Portal:P33358 , RefSeq:NP_416631 , RegulonDB:EG12008 , SMR:P33358 , String:511145.b2127 , UniProt:P33358

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000551 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009061 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF13411 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00552 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50937 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00422

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for mlrA

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0003700 - sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Inferred from experiment [Ogasawara10]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Lindenberg13]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Regulated Transcription Units (4 total): ?


Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Essentiality data for mlrA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of MlrA DNA binding transcriptional activator with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Conserved-Region 3 -> 72
UniProt: HTH merR-type;
DNA-Binding-Region 6 -> 25
UniProt: H-T-H motif; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b2127 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG12008; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Brown01: Brown PK, Dozois CM, Nickerson CA, Zuppardo A, Terlonge J, Curtiss R (2001). "MlrA, a novel regulator of curli (AgF) and extracellular matrix synthesis by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium." Mol Microbiol 41(2);349-63. PMID: 11489123

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Ishihama10: Ishihama A (2010). "Prokaryotic genome regulation: multifactor promoters, multitarget regulators and hierarchic networks." FEMS Microbiol Rev 34(5);628-45. PMID: 20491932

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Lindenberg13: Lindenberg S, Klauck G, Pesavento C, Klauck E, Hengge R (2013). "The EAL domain protein YciR acts as a trigger enzyme in a c-di-GMP signalling cascade in E. coli biofilm control." EMBO J 32(14);2001-14. PMID: 23708798

Ogasawara10: Ogasawara H, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A (2010). "Regulatory role of MlrA in transcription activation of csgD, the master regulator of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 312(2);160-8. PMID: 20874755

PerezRueda04: Perez-Rueda E, Collado-Vides J, Segovia L (2004). "Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea." Comput Biol Chem 28(5-6);341-50. PMID: 15556475

Shaikh03: Shaikh N, Tarr PI (2003). "Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages: integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implications." J Bacteriol 185(12);3596-605. PMID: 12775697

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Yokoyama00: Yokoyama K, Makino K, Kubota Y, Watanabe M, Kimura S, Yutsudo CH, Kurokawa K, Ishii K, Hattori M, Tatsuno I, Abe H, Yoh M, Iida T, Ohnishi M, Hayashi T, Yasunaga T, Honda T, Sasakawa C, Shinagawa H (2000). "Complete nucleotide sequence of the prophage VT1-Sakai carrying the Shiga toxin 1 genes of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain derived from the Sakai outbreak." Gene 258(1-2);127-39. PMID: 11111050

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Huerta03: Huerta AM, Collado-Vides J (2003). "Sigma70 promoters in Escherichia coli: specific transcription in dense regions of overlapping promoter-like signals." J Mol Biol 333(2);261-78. PMID: 14529615

Pesavento08: Pesavento C, Becker G, Sommerfeldt N, Possling A, Tschowri N, Mehlis A, Hengge R (2008). "Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli." Genes Dev 22(17);2434-46. PMID: 18765794

Pesavento12: Pesavento C, Hengge R (2012). "The global repressor FliZ antagonizes gene expression by σS-containing RNA polymerase due to overlapping DNA binding specificity." Nucleic Acids Res 40(11);4783-93. PMID: 22323519

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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