Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase C

Gene: mltC Accession Numbers: G7533 (EcoCyc), b2963, ECK2958

Synonyms: yggZ

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for mltC

E. coli contains a large number of murein hydrolase enzymes. MltC belongs to the family of lytic transglycosylases which degrade GlcNAcMurNAc glycan strands, resulting in the formation of a 1,6-anhydro-MurNAc residue at the released product. These enzymes are involved in the cleavage of the septum during cell division.

Peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of MltC was demonstrated [Dijkstra96a].

A mutant containing deletions in mltC, mltD, and mltE has a defect in cell separation, growing as short chains of cells [Heidrich02]. These chain-forming mutants have a defect in the barrier function of the outer membrane. A mutant strain lacking all six known lytic transglycosylases (mltA mltB mltC mltD mltE slt) is unable to induce β-lactamase and is more susceptible to certain high-molecular weight antibiotics which are normally inactive against Gram-negative bacteria, such as bacitracin, gallidermin and vancomycin [Korsak05].

Expression of mltC is induced by oxidative stress via SoxS [Pomposiello03].

Review: [Holtje95]

Gene Citations: [Gifford99]

Locations: outer membrane

Map Position: [3,102,455 -> 3,103,534] (66.87 centisomes, 241°)
Length: 1080 bp / 359 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 40.113 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0009725 , EchoBASE:EB2810 , EcoGene:EG12986 , EcoliWiki:b2963 , ModBase:P0C066 , OU-Microarray:b2963 , PortEco:mltC , PR:PRO_000023247 , Pride:P0C066 , Protein Model Portal:P0C066 , RefSeq:NP_417438 , RegulonDB:G7533 , SMR:P0C066 , String:511145.b2963 , UniProt:P0C066

Relationship Links: CAZy:IN-FAMILY:GH23 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000189 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008258 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023346 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023664 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR024570 , PDB:Structure:4C5F , PDB:Structure:4CFO , PDB:Structure:4CFP , PDB:Structure:4CHX , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01464 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF11873 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00922 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51257

In Paralogous Gene Group: 67 (4 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for mltC

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0034599 - cellular response to oxidative stress Inferred from experiment [Pomposiello03]
GO:0071236 - cellular response to antibiotic Inferred from experiment [Korsak05]
GO:0000270 - peptidoglycan metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0016998 - cell wall macromolecule catabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0071555 - cell wall organization Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0008933 - lytic transglycosylase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0016798 - hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0016829 - lyase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016837 - carbon-oxygen lyase activity, acting on polysaccharides Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01, DiazMejia09]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
cell structure murein
metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) murein (peptidoglycan)

Essentiality data for mltC knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Last-Curated ? 30-Dec-2005 by Keseler I , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: murein hydrolase (membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase C)

Synonyms: lytic murein transglycosylase

EC Number: 4.2.2.-

a peptidoglycan dimer (generic) <=> a lipid II + GlcNAc-1,6-anhydro-MurNAc-pentapeptide

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Reversibility of this reaction is unspecified.

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase C with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 16
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Lipid-Binding-Site 17
UniProt: N-palmitoyl cysteine; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Chain 17 -> 359
UniProt: Membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase C;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


Peter D. Karp on Wed Jan 18, 2006:
Gene left-end position adjusted based on analysis performed in the 2005 E. coli annotation update [Riley06 ].
Markus Krummenacker on Tue Oct 14, 1997:
Gene object created from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dijkstra96a: Dijkstra AJ, Keck W (1996). "Identification of new members of the lytic transglycosylase family in Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli." Microb Drug Resist 2(1);141-5. PMID: 9158737

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Gifford99: Gifford CM, Wallace SS (1999). "The genes encoding formamidopyrimidine and MutY DNA glycosylases in Escherichia coli are transcribed as part of complex operons." J Bacteriol 181(14);4223-36. PMID: 10400579

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Heidrich02: Heidrich C, Ursinus A, Berger J, Schwarz H, Holtje JV (2002). "Effects of multiple deletions of murein hydrolases on viability, septum cleavage, and sensitivity to large toxic molecules in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 184(22);6093-9. PMID: 12399477

Holtje95: Holtje JV (1995). "From growth to autolysis: the murein hydrolases in Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 164(4);243-54. PMID: 7487333

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Korsak05: Korsak D, Liebscher S, Vollmer W (2005). "Susceptibility to antibiotics and beta-lactamase induction in murein hydrolase mutants of Escherichia coli." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49(4);1404-9. PMID: 15793119

Pomposiello03: Pomposiello PJ, Koutsolioutsou A, Carrasco D, Demple B (2003). "SoxRS-regulated expression and genetic analysis of the yggX gene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 185(22);6624-32. PMID: 14594836

Riley06: Riley M, Abe T, Arnaud MB, Berlyn MK, Blattner FR, Chaudhuri RR, Glasner JD, Horiuchi T, Keseler IM, Kosuge T, Mori H, Perna NT, Plunkett G, Rudd KE, Serres MH, Thomas GH, Thomson NR, Wishart D, Wanner BL (2006). "Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005." Nucleic Acids Res 34(1);1-9. PMID: 16397293

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Tue Oct 13, 2015, BIOCYC11A.