Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP

Gene: gltP Accession Numbers: EG10405 (EcoCyc), b4077, ECK4070

Synonyms: GltII

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for gltP

E. coli contains four transporters for the uptake of glutamate (GltIJKL, GltP, GltS, and GadC) and five transporters for the uptake of aspartate (GltIJKL, GltP, DctA, DcuA, and DcuB). GltP accounts for approximately 60% of the total wild-type transport velocity of glutamate, and 52% of the total wild-type transport velocity of aspartate in aerobic growth with succinate and 40 mM NaCl [Schellenberg77].

GltP is a proton dependent transporter for glutamate and aspartate. E. coli K12 cannot grow on glutamate as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, selection of mutants which can grow on glutamate (Glt+) are typically due to mutations which overexpress either the GltS or GltP glutamate transporters [Booth89]. The cloned gltP gene has been shown to confer the ability to utilize and transport glutamate and aspartate [Wallace90]. A mutation leading to the overexpression of gltP results in increased sensitivity to cysteate and DL-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate [Booth89]. Whole cell transport experiments have shown that GltP is a proton dependent transporter which can transport glutamate and aspartate with Km of approx 5 μM [Schellenberg77]. This has been confirmed in E. coli membrane vesicles, where GltP was shown to function via an electrogenic symport mechanism where L-glutamate was co-transported with at least two protons [Tolner95]. GltP is a member of the DAACS family of proton or sodium-dependent amino acid or dicarboxylate transporter family.

GltP was found to have a reversible equilibrium of a trimeric and hexameric form in solution after purification [Raunser06].

Gene Citations: [Tolner92]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [4,292,504 -> 4,293,817] (92.52 centisomes, 333°)
Length: 1314 bp / 437 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 47.159 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 38.0 kD (experimental) [Wallace90 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0013357 , CGSC:34330 , EchoBASE:EB0400 , EcoGene:EG10405 , EcoliWiki:b4077 , OU-Microarray:b4077 , PortEco:gltP , PR:PRO_000022811 , Protein Model Portal:P21345 , RefSeq:NP_418501 , RegulonDB:EG10405 , SMR:P21345 , String:511145.b4077 , UniProt:P21345

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001991 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018107 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11958 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00375 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00173 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00713 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00714

In Paralogous Gene Group: 488 (3 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Instance reactions of [a C4-dicarboxylate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → a C4-dicarboxylate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol]] (no EC#):
i1: L-aspartate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → L-aspartate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i2: fumarate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → fumarate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i3: succinate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → succinate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i4: (R)-malate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → (R)-malate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i5: (S)-malate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → (S)-malate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006835 - dicarboxylic acid transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Wallace90]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0015293 - symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0017153 - sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09, Daley05, Wallace90]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism biosynthesis of building blocks amino acids aspartate
metabolism biosynthesis of building blocks amino acids glutamate
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for gltP knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Enzymatic reaction of: L-aspartate:H+ symporter (glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP)

Transport reaction diagram for L-aspartate:H+ symporter

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)

Enzymatic reaction of: L-glutamate:H+ symporter (glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP)

Transport reaction diagram for L-glutamate:H+ symporter

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 24 -> 46
UniProt: Helical; Name=1;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 66 -> 84
UniProt: Helical; Name=2;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 97 -> 115
UniProt: Helical; Name=3;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 150 -> 168
UniProt: Helical; Name=4;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 172 -> 191
UniProt: Helical; Name=5;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 211 -> 229
UniProt: Helical; Name=6;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 243 -> 261
UniProt: Helical; Name=7;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 283 -> 301
UniProt: Helical; Name=8;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 322 -> 340
UniProt: Helical; Name=9;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 352 -> 370
UniProt: Helical; Name=10;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 379 -> 398
UniProt: Helical; Name=11;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 406 -> 419
UniProt: Helical; Name=12;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b4077 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10405; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Booth89: Booth IR, Kleppang KE, Kempsell KE (1989). "A genetic locus for the GltII-glutamate transport system in Escherichia coli." J Gen Microbiol 1989;135 ( Pt 10);2767-74. PMID: 2576660

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Raunser06: Raunser S, Appel M, Ganea C, Geldmacher-Kaufer U, Fendler K, Kuhlbrandt W (2006). "Structure and function of prokaryotic glutamate transporters from Escherichia coli and Pyrococcus horikoshii." Biochemistry 45(42);12796-805. PMID: 17042498

Schellenberg77: Schellenberg GD, Furlong CE (1977). "Resolution of the multiplicity of the glutamate and aspartate transport systems of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1977;252(24);9055-64. PMID: 336628

Tolner92: Tolner B, Poolman B, Wallace B, Konings WN (1992). "Revised nucleotide sequence of the gltP gene, which encodes the proton-glutamate-aspartate transport protein of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 174(7);2391-3. PMID: 1551855

Tolner95: Tolner B, Ubbink-Kok T, Poolman B, Konings WN (1995). "Cation-selectivity of the L-glutamate transporters of Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus caldotenax: dependence on the environment in which the proteins are expressed." Mol Microbiol 1995;18(1);123-33. PMID: 8596452

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wallace90: Wallace B, Yang YJ, Hong JS, Lum D (1990). "Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a glutamate and aspartate carrier of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1990;172(6);3214-20. PMID: 1971622

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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