Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme

Gene: glgB Accession Numbers: EG10378 (EcoCyc), b3432, ECK3418

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for glgB

Gycogen branching enzyme catalyzes the formation of the branched α-1,6-glucosidic linkages from the growing polyglucose chain during glycogen biosynthesis.

Biochemical studies of the enzyme have been performed using E. coli B [Boyer77]. Gycogen branching enzyme has a preference for transferring chains between 5 and 16 glucose units. The minimum chain length required for branching is 12 [Guan97]. Truncation of the amino terminus alters the branching pattern [Binderup02, Devillers03].

The Glu459 residue is important for specific activity and substrate specificity of the enzyme [Binderup98], and the Tyr300 residue is required for enzymatic activity and thermostability [Mikkelsen01].

A crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure of the central domain, containing the active site, is similar to other amylase family enzymes [Abad02].

Gene Citations: [Montero10]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [3,569,339 <- 3,571,525] (76.93 centisomes, 277°)
Length: 2187 bp / 728 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 84.337 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 85.0 kD (experimental) [Binderup98 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0011209 , CGSC:709 , EchoBASE:EB0373 , EcoGene:EG10378 , EcoliWiki:b3432 , ModBase:P07762 , OU-Microarray:b3432 , PortEco:glgB , Pride:P07762 , Protein Model Portal:P07762 , RefSeq:NP_417890 , RegulonDB:EG10378 , SMR:P07762 , String:511145.b3432 , UniProt:P07762

Relationship Links: CAZy:IN-FAMILY:CBM48 , CAZy:IN-FAMILY:GH13 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004193 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006047 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006048 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006407 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013780 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013781 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013783 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014756 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR015902 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR017853 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR10357 , PDB:Structure:1GTY , PDB:Structure:1M7X , PDB:Structure:3O7Y , PDB:Structure:3O7Z , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00128 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02806 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02922

In Paralogous Gene Group: 123 (6 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for glgB

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0005978 - glycogen biosynthetic process Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12, UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a, Eydallin07a]
GO:0006974 - cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Inferred from experiment [Khil02]
GO:0005975 - carbohydrate metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0005977 - glycogen metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0003844 - 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, GOA01a, Binderup98]
GO:0003824 - catalytic activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0004553 - hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016757 - transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0043169 - cation binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm

MultiFun Terms: metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) cytoplasmic polysaccharides

Essentiality data for glgB knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Last-Curated ? 09-Mar-2009 by Keseler I , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme

Synonyms: glycogen branching enzyme, amylo-(1,4-1,6)-transglycosylase, Q-enzyme, 1,4-α-D-glucan:1,4-α-D-glucan 6-α-D-(1,4-α-D-glucano)-transferase

EC Number:

a 1,4-α-D-glucan <=> a glycogen

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction of enzyme catalysis.

This reaction is reversible.

In Pathways: glycogen biosynthesis I (from ADP-D-Glucose)

The E. coli B enzyme has been purified and characterized [Boyer77].

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)
a 1,4-α-D-glucan
[Mikkelsen01, BRENDA14]
a 1,4-α-D-glucan

pH(opt): 7.7 [Binderup98]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Active-Site 405
UniProt: Nucleophile; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity.
Active-Site 458
UniProt: Proton donor; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity.

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3432 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10378; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Abad02: Abad MC, Binderup K, Rios-Steiner J, Arni RK, Preiss J, Geiger JH (2002). "The X-ray crystallographic structure of Escherichia coli branching enzyme." J Biol Chem 277(44);42164-70. PMID: 12196524

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Binderup02: Binderup K, Mikkelsen R, Preiss J (2002). "Truncation of the amino terminus of branching enzyme changes its chain transfer pattern." Arch Biochem Biophys 397(2);279-85. PMID: 11795883

Binderup98: Binderup K, Preiss J (1998). "Glutamate-459 is important for Escherichia coli branching enzyme activity." Biochemistry 37(25);9033-7. PMID: 9636047

Boyer77: Boyer C, Preiss J (1977). "Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen. Purification and properties of the Escherichia coli b alpha-1,4,-glucan: alpha-1,4-glucan 6-glycosyltansferase." Biochemistry 16(16);3693-9. PMID: 407932

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

Devillers03: Devillers CH, Piper ME, Ballicora MA, Preiss J (2003). "Characterization of the branching patterns of glycogen branching enzyme truncated on the N-terminus." Arch Biochem Biophys 418(1);34-8. PMID: 13679080

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eydallin07a: Eydallin G, Viale AM, Moran-Zorzano MT, Munoz FJ, Montero M, Baroja-Fernandez E, Pozueta-Romero J (2007). "Genome-wide screening of genes affecting glycogen metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12." FEBS Lett 581(16);2947-53. PMID: 17543954

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Guan97: Guan H, Li P, Imparl-Radosevich J, Preiss J, Keeling P (1997). "Comparing the properties of Escherichia coli branching enzyme and maize branching enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 342(1);92-8. PMID: 9185617

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Mikkelsen01: Mikkelsen R, Binderup K, Preiss J (2001). "Tyrosine residue 300 is important for activity and stability of branching enzyme from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 385(2);372-7. PMID: 11368019

Montero10: Montero M, Almagro G, Eydallin G, Viale AM, Munoz FJ, Bahaji A, Li J, Rahimpour M, Baroja-Fernandez E, Pozueta-Romero J (2010). "Escherichia coli glycogen genes are organized in a single glgBXCAP transcriptional unit possessing an alternative suboperonic promoter within glgC that directs glgAP expression." Biochem J 433(1);107-17. PMID: 21029047

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-11 released on 2011-11-22 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

MedinaRivera11: Medina-Rivera A, Abreu-Goodger C, Thomas-Chollier M, Salgado H, Collado-Vides J, van Helden J (2011). "Theoretical and empirical quality assessment of transcription factor-binding motifs." Nucleic Acids Res 39(3);808-24. PMID: 20923783

Romeo89: Romeo T, Preiss J (1989). "Genetic regulation of glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: in vitro effects of cyclic AMP and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate and analysis of in vivo transcripts." J Bacteriol 171(5);2773-82. PMID: 2468650

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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