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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: mannose PTS permease - ManX subunit



Gene: manX Accession Numbers: EG10567 (EcoCyc), b1817, ECK1815

Synonyms: gptB, mpt, ptsL, ptsM, ptsX, IIIMan, Enzyme IIIman, Enzyme IIABman, IIABMan, IIABman

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of: mannose PTS permease (extended summary available)

Subunit composition of mannose PTS permease - ManX subunit = [ManX]2
         mannose PTS permease - ManX subunit = ManX

Summary:

The ManX subunit of the mannose PTS permease consists of two domains, IIAman and IIBman, linked by a hinge peptide. Each domain contains a phosphorylation site and phosphoryl transfer occurs between His10 of IIA and His175 of IIB [Erni85, Erni87, Erni89, Stolz93]. ManX exists as a dimer and is found membrane associated as well as free in the cytoplasm [Erni85]. ManX can be phosphorylated in a phosphoenolpyruvate dependent reaction and ManX is required for for the phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose in vitro [Erni85].

Two forms of a complex between IIA and IIB have been isolated. In one, the two active site histidines are in close contact and the structure is predicted to be competent for phosphoryl transfer between the two domains while in the other the two active site histidines are separated and the active site is solvent exposed. This second structure may be be involved in transferring a phosphoryl group to the incoming sugar [Hu08]. A solution structure of the IIAman - HPr complex has been obtained. IIAman contains two HPr binding sites per dimer. His10 of IIAman and His15 of HPr are in close contact [Williams05a].

Citations: [MarkovicHousley94]

Gene Citations: [Plumbridge91, Plumbridge95, Plumbridge98]

Locations: inner membrane, cytosol

Map Position: [1,900,072 -> 1,901,043] (40.95 centisomes)
Length: 972 bp / 323 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 35.048 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 35.0 kD (experimental) [Erni85 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0006054 , CGSC:17656 , DIP:DIP-35846N , EchoBASE:EB0562 , EcoGene:EG10567 , EcoliWiki:b1817 , Mint:MINT-1228428 , OU-Microarray:b1817 , PortEco:manX , PR:PRO_000023161 , Pride:P69797 , Protein Model Portal:P69797 , RefSeq:NP_416331 , RegulonDB:EG10567 , SMR:P69797 , String:511145.b1817 , Swiss-Model:P69797 , UniProt:P69797

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004701 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004720 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013789 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018455 , PDB:Structure:1PDO , PDB:Structure:1VRC , PDB:Structure:1VSQ , PDB:Structure:2JZH , PDB:Structure:2JZN , PDB:Structure:2JZO , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03610 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03830 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51096 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51101

In Paralogous Gene Group: 348 (2 members) , 349 (3 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009401 - phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Erni85]
GO:0015761 - mannose transport Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0015764 - N-acetylglucosamine transport Inferred from experiment [JonesMortimer80]
GO:0032445 - fructose import Inferred from experiment [Ferenci74, JonesMortimer74]
GO:0061490 - glucose import into cell Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016310 - phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0034219 - carbohydrate transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Arifuzzaman06]
GO:0016301 - kinase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Erni85]
GO:0022870 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-mannose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0042803 - protein homodimerization activity Inferred from experiment [Erni87]
GO:0008982 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016773 - phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Erni85]
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment [Lasserre06, Erni85]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Erni85]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Lasserre06]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Group Translocators Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS)

Essentiality data for manX knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Credits:
Created 17-Feb-2011 by Mackie A , Macquarie University
Last-Curated ? 01-Apr-2013 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Subunit of: mannose PTS permease

Synonyms: EIIman, Enzyme II mannose

Subunit composition of mannose PTS permease = [ManZ]2[ManY][ManX]2
         mannose PTS permease - ManZ subunit = ManZ (summary available)
         mannose PTS permease - ManY subunit = ManY (summary available)
         mannose PTS permease - ManX subunit = ManX (extended summary available)

Summary:
ManXYZ, the mannose PTS permease, belongs to the functional superfamily of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTSsugar). The PTSsugar transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its sugar substrates in a process called group translocation. ManXYZ takes up exogenous hexoses (mannose, glucose, glucosamine, fructose, N-acetylglucosamine, etc.), releasing the phosphate esters into the cell cytoplasm in preparation for metabolism, primarily via glycolysis (reviewed in [Postma93]). The mannose transporter also transports and phosphorylates the non-metabolizable analogues 2-deoxyglucose and mannosamine [Curtis75]. The mannose transporter acts as a host factor required for the infection of E. coli by λ phage [Elliott78, Williams86]. ManX and ManY alone are sufficient for λ phage infection [Erni85, Erni87].

ManXYZ, also known as the Enzyme IIMan complex, possesses four domains in three polypeptide chains, ManX=IIABMan, ManY=IICMan and ManZ=IIDMan. They are members of the PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose Family (Man Family), the "splinter group", which is not homologous to most other PTS permeases [Saier14]. The IIAB subunit (ManX) forms a homodimer that is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane [Stolz93]. ManY and ManZ are integral membrane proteins with six and one transmembrane α-helical spanner(s), respectively [Huber96]. The 3-dimensional structure of IIAMan and the secondary structure of IIBMan have been determined [Nunn96, Seip97]. The subunit ratio of E.coli mannose permease is 2ManX:ManY:2ManZ [Rhiel94].

The inner membrane components of the mannose PTS permease also catalyse sugar phosphate:14C sugar transphosphorylation [Saier77] and vectorial transphosphorylation [Saier77a]. Mannose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate are effective donors for transphosphorylation of labelled mannose in washed membrane preparations in vitro. Optimal rates of transphosphorylation require low sugar and high sugar-phosphate concentrations [Saier77].| The plasmid encoded, His-tagged ManXY complex is oligomeric within the membrane and monomeric in its soluble form in the cytoplasm. Both forms exhibit PEP-dependent sugar phosphorylation and sugar phosphate-dependent transphosphorylation activities, though the kinetic properties of these reactions differ between the two forms of the protein [Aboulwafa04].

The overall PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer reaction, requiring the two general energy coupling proteins of the PTS, Enzyme I (PtsI) and HPr (PtsH), as well as the four domains of the Enzyme IImannose complex can be represented as:

PEP → Enzyme I-Phis189 → HPr-Phis15 → Enzyme IIA-Phis10 → Enzyme IIB-Phis175-(Enzyme IICD) → hexose-6-P.

ManXYZ transports mannose with micromolar affinity.

The manXYZ operon is either constitutively expressed or inducibly expressed in response to extracellular sugar substrates depending on the E. coli strain examined. Regulation of the mannose PTS is controlled by the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) - cyclic AMP complex (CRP-cAMP), the Mlc transcriptional repressor [Plumbridge98] and the SgrS small regulatory RNA [Rice12].

Reviews: [JonesMortimer80, Erni87].

Citations: [GarciaAlles02, Gutknecht99]

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009401 - phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Inferred from experiment [Kundig71, Curtis75]
GO:0015761 - mannose transport Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0015764 - N-acetylglucosamine transport Inferred from experiment [JonesMortimer80]
GO:0032445 - fructose import Inferred from experiment [Ferenci74]
GO:0061490 - glucose import into cell Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0075733 - intracellular transport of virus Inferred from experiment [Elliott78]
Molecular Function: GO:0022855 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-glucose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0022870 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-mannose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Kundig71]
GO:0022877 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-fructose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Ferenci74]
GO:0022880 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-N-acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [JonesMortimer80]
GO:0090590 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-D-glucosamine phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [JonesMortimer80, Curtis75]
GO:0090591 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-N-acetyl-mannosamine phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Plumbridge99]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 27-Jun-2013 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: D-mannose PTS permease

Synonyms: Transport of mannose


Enzymatic reaction of: 2-deoxy-D-glucose PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)


Enzymatic reaction of: N-acetyl-D-mannosamine PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)

Synonyms: transport of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine


Enzymatic reaction of: D-glucosamine PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)

Synonyms: Transport of glucosamine


Enzymatic reaction of: β-D-glucose PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)

Synonyms: Transport of β-D-glucose

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
β-D-glucose
30.0
[Mao95]


Enzymatic reaction of: N-acetyl-D-glucosamine PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)

Synonyms: Transport of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine


Enzymatic reaction of: D-fructose PTS permease (mannose PTS permease)

Synonyms: Transport of fructose

Summary:
Fructose is a low-affinity substrate of the mannose PTS [Ferenci74].


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Link97, UniProt11]
UniProt: Removed.
Sequence-Conflict 2 -> 23
[Saris88, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: TIAIVIGTHGWAAEQLLKTAEM → GWGCRAGCLKRQKW; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24110);
Conserved-Region 2 -> 124
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS EIIA type-4;
Chain 2 -> 323
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS system mannose-specific EIIAB component;
Active-Site 10
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Tele-phosphohistidine intermediate; for EIIA activity; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Sequence-Conflict 35
[Saris88, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: D → N; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24110);
Acetylation-Modification 55
[Zhang09, UniProt11]
UniProt: N6-acetyllysine.
Sequence-Conflict 101
[Saris88, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: T → R; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24110);
Protein-Segment 137 -> 155
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Hinge; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest;
Sequence-Conflict 142
[Saris88, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: A → G; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24110);
Conserved-Region 157 -> 320
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS EIIB type-4;
Active-Site 175
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Pros-phosphohistidine intermediate; for EIIB activity; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Acetylation-Modification 234
[Zhang09, UniProt11]
UniProt: N6-acetyllysine.


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Unit:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b1817 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10567; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Aboulwafa04: Aboulwafa M, Saier MH (2004). "Characterization of soluble enzyme II complexes of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system." J Bacteriol 186(24);8453-62. PMID: 15576795

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Curtis75: Curtis SJ, Epstein W (1975). "Phosphorylation of D-glucose in Escherichia coli mutants defective in glucosephosphotransferase, mannosephosphotransferase, and glucokinase." J Bacteriol 122(3);1189-99. PMID: 1097393

Dietz71: Dietz GW, Heppel LA (1971). "Studies on the uptake of hexose phosphates. I. 2-Deoxyglucose and 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate." J Biol Chem 246(9);2881-4. PMID: 4928893

Elliott78: Elliott J, Arber W (1978). "E. coli K-12 pel mutants, which block phage lambda DNA injection, coincide with ptsM, which determines a component of a sugar transport system." Mol Gen Genet 161(1);1-8. PMID: 353494

Erni85: Erni B, Zanolari B (1985). "The mannose-permease of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Gene cloning and purification of the enzyme IIMan/IIIMan complex of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 260(29);15495-503. PMID: 2999119

Erni87: Erni B, Zanolari B, Kocher HP (1987). "The mannose permease of Escherichia coli consists of three different proteins. Amino acid sequence and function in sugar transport, sugar phosphorylation, and penetration of phage lambda DNA." J Biol Chem 262(11);5238-47. PMID: 2951378

Erni89: Erni B, Zanolari B, Graff P, Kocher HP (1989). "Mannose permease of Escherichia coli. Domain structure and function of the phosphorylating subunit." J Biol Chem 264(31);18733-41. PMID: 2681202

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Ferenci74: Ferenci T, Kornberg HL (1974). "The role of phosphotransferase-mediated syntheses of fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate in the growth of Escherichia coli on fructose." Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 187(1087);105-19. PMID: 4153999

GarciaAlles02: Garcia-Alles LF, Zahn A, Erni B (2002). "Sugar recognition by the glucose and mannose permeases of Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetics and inhibition studies." Biochemistry 41(31);10077-86. PMID: 12146972

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

Gutknecht99: Gutknecht R, Flukiger K, Lanz R, Erni B (1999). "Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer in the dimeric IIABMan subunit of the Escherichia coli mannose transporter." J Biol Chem 274(10);6091-6. PMID: 10037691

Hu08: Hu J, Hu K, Williams DC, Komlosh ME, Cai M, Clore GM (2008). "Solution NMR structures of productive and non-productive complexes between the A and B domains of the cytoplasmic subunit of the mannose transporter of the escherichia coli phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 283(16);11024-37. PMID: 18270202

Huber96: Huber F, Erni B (1996). "Membrane topology of the mannose transporter of Escherichia coli K12." Eur J Biochem 239(3);810-7. PMID: 8774730

JonesMortimer74: Jones-Mortimer MC, Kornberg HL (1974). "Genetical analysis of fructose utilization by Escherichia coli." Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 187(1087);121-31. PMID: 4154035

JonesMortimer80: Jones-Mortimer MC, Kornberg HL (1980). "Amino-sugar transport systems of Escherichia coli K12." J Gen Microbiol 117(2);369-76. PMID: 6252281

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kundig71: Kundig W, Roseman S (1971). "Sugar transport. II. Characterization of constitutive membrane-bound enzymes II of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 246(5);1407-18. PMID: 5545083

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Link97: Link AJ, Robison K, Church GM (1997). "Comparing the predicted and observed properties of proteins encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli K-12." Electrophoresis 18(8);1259-313. PMID: 9298646

Mao95: Mao Q, Schunk T, Flukiger K, Erni B (1995). "Functional reconstitution of the purified mannose phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli into phospholipid vesicles." J Biol Chem 270(10);5258-65. PMID: 7890636

MarkovicHousley94: Markovic-Housley Z, Cooper A, Lustig A, Flukiger K, Stolz B, Erni B (1994). "Independent folding of the domains in the hydrophilic subunit IIABman of the mannose transporter of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 33(36);10977-84. PMID: 8086415

Nunn96: Nunn RS, Markovic-Housley Z, Genovesio-Taverne JC, Flukiger K, Rizkallah PJ, Jansonius JN, Schirmer T, Erni B (1996). "Structure of the IIA domain of the mannose transporter from Escherichia coli at 1.7 angstroms resolution." J Mol Biol 259(3);502-11. PMID: 8676384

Plumbridge91: Plumbridge J, Kolb A (1991). "CAP and Nag repressor binding to the regulatory regions of the nagE-B and manX genes of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 1991;217(4);661-79. PMID: 1848637

Plumbridge95: Plumbridge J, Kolb A (1995). "Nag repressor-operator interactions: protein-DNA contacts cover more than two turns of the DNA helix." J Mol Biol 1995;249(5);890-902. PMID: 7791215

Plumbridge98: Plumbridge J (1998). "Control of the expression of the manXYZ operon in Escherichia coli: Mlc is a negative regulator of the mannose PTS." Mol Microbiol 1998;27(2);369-80. PMID: 9484892

Plumbridge99: Plumbridge J, Vimr E (1999). "Convergent pathways for utilization of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmannosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(1);47-54. PMID: 9864311

Postma93: Postma PW, Lengeler JW, Jacobson GR (1993). "Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria." Microbiol Rev 57(3);543-94. PMID: 8246840

Rhiel94: Rhiel E, Flukiger K, Wehrli C, Erni B (1994). "The mannose transporter of Escherichia coli K12: oligomeric structure, and function of two conserved cysteines." Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 375(8);551-9. PMID: 7811395

Rice12: Rice JB, Balasubramanian D, Vanderpool CK (2012). "Small RNA binding-site multiplicity involved in translational regulation of a polycistronic mRNA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(40);E2691-8. PMID: 22988087

Saier14: Saier MH, Reddy VS, Tamang DG, Vastermark A (2014). "The transporter classification database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(1);D251-8. PMID: 24225317

Saier77: Saier MH, Feucht BU, Mora WK (1977). "Sugar phosphate: sugar transphosphorylation and exchange group translocation catalyzed by the enzyme 11 complexes of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 252(24);8899-907. PMID: 336623

Saier77a: Saier MH, Cox DF, Moczydlowski EG (1977). "Sugar phosphate:sugar transphosphorylation coupled to exchange group translocation catalyzed by the enzyme II complexes of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 252(24);8908-16. PMID: 336624

Saris88: Saris P.E.J., Liljestroem P., Palva E.T. (1988). "Nucleotide sequence of manX(ptsL) encoding the enzyme III(Man) (II-A(Man)) function in the phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli K-12." FEMS Microbiol. Lett., Volume 49, page(s) 69-73.

Seip97: Seip S, Lanz R, Gutknecht R, Flukiger K, Erni B (1997). "The fructose transporter of Bacillus subtilis encoded by the lev operon: backbone assignment and secondary structure of the IIB(Lev) subunit." Eur J Biochem 243(1-2);306-14. PMID: 9030753

Stolz93: Stolz B, Huber M, Markovic-Housley Z, Erni B (1993). "The mannose transporter of Escherichia coli. Structure and function of the IIABMan subunit." J Biol Chem 1993;268(36);27094-9. PMID: 8262947

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Williams05a: Williams DC, Cai M, Suh JY, Peterkofsky A, Clore GM (2005). "Solution NMR structure of the 48-kDa IIAMannose-HPr complex of the Escherichia coli mannose phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 280(21);20775-84. PMID: 15788390

Williams86: Williams N, Fox DK, Shea C, Roseman S (1986). "Pel, the protein that permits lambda DNA penetration of Escherichia coli, is encoded by a gene in ptsM and is required for mannose utilization by the phosphotransferase system." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83(23);8934-8. PMID: 2947241

Zhang09: Zhang J, Sprung R, Pei J, Tan X, Kim S, Zhu H, Liu CF, Grishin NV, Zhao Y (2009). "Lysine acetylation is a highly abundant and evolutionarily conserved modification in Escherichia coli." Mol Cell Proteomics 8(2);215-25. PMID: 18723842

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Oberto10: Oberto J (2010). "FITBAR: a web tool for the robust prediction of prokaryotic regulons." BMC Bioinformatics 11;554. PMID: 21070640

Plumbridge01: Plumbridge J (2001). "DNA binding sites for the Mlc and NagC proteins: regulation of nagE, encoding the N-acetylglucosamine-specific transporter in Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 29(2);506-14. PMID: 11139621

Rice11: Rice JB, Vanderpool CK (2011). "The small RNA SgrS controls sugar-phosphate accumulation by regulating multiple PTS genes." Nucleic Acids Res 39(9);3806-19. PMID: 21245045

Sarkar08: Sarkar D, Siddiquee KA, Arauzo-Bravo MJ, Oba T, Shimizu K (2008). "Effect of cra gene knockout together with edd and iclR genes knockout on the metabolism in Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 190(5);559-71. PMID: 18648770

Zheng04: Zheng D, Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Minchin SD (2004). "Identification of the CRP regulon using in vitro and in vivo transcriptional profiling." Nucleic Acids Res 32(19);5874-93. PMID: 15520470


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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