Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: palmitoleoyl acyltransferase

Gene: lpxP Accession Numbers: G7241 (EcoCyc), b2378, ECK2374

Synonyms: ddg

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for lpxP

In wild-type E. coli grown at 12°C, two-thirds of the lipid A molecules contain palmitoleate instead of laurate [VorachekWarren02]. Palmitoleoyl acyltransferase (LpxP) is the sole enzyme that catalyzes the incorporation of palmitoleate into lipid A in E. coli [Carty99, VorachekWarren02].

lpxP expression is induced by cold shock [Carty99]. An lpxP mutant does not exhibit an obvious growth defect even when grown at 12°C; however, the mutant is hypersensitive to certain antibiotics at low temperatures [VorachekWarren02]. A triple lpxL lpxM lpxP mutant lacking all secondary acyl chains of lipid A grows slowly in minimal medium, but is not viable at temperatures above 32°C in rich medium [VorachekWarren02a]. Overexpression of msbA suppresses the growth defect of the triple mutant under fast-growing conditions [Klein09a].

Reviews: [Raetz02, Trent04, Mansilla04, Raetz07]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [2,493,667 -> 2,494,587] (53.75 centisomes, 193°)
Length: 921 bp / 306 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 35.493 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0007848 , EchoBASE:EB2738 , EcoGene:EG12901 , EcoliWiki:b2378 , OU-Microarray:b2378 , PortEco:lpxP , PR:PRO_000022418 , Pride:P0ACV2 , Protein Model Portal:P0ACV2 , RefSeq:NP_416879 , RegulonDB:G7241 , String:511145.b2378 , UniProt:P0ACV2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004960 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011920 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03279

In Paralogous Gene Group: 411 (2 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009409 - response to cold Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Carty99]
GO:0036104 - Kdo2-lipid A biosynthetic process Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, VorachekWarren02]
GO:0009103 - lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12, UniProtGOA11]
GO:0009245 - lipid A biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0008951 - palmitoleoyl [acyl-carrier-protein]-dependent acyltransferase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Carty99]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016746 - transferase activity, transferring acyl groups Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations temperature extremes
cell structure membrane
cell structure surface antigens (ECA, O antigen of LPS)
metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) lipopolysaccharide lipid A

Essentiality data for lpxP knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Last-Curated ? 16-May-2013 by Keseler I , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: palmitoleoyl acyltransferase

Synonyms: palmitoleoyl transferase

EC Number:

a palmitoleoyl-[acp] + α-Kdo-(2->4)-α-Kdo-(2->6)-lipid IVA <=> Kdo2-(palmitoleoyl)-lipid IVA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: superpathway of (Kdo)2-lipid A biosynthesis

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of palmitoleoyl acyltransferase with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 20 -> 40
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


Peter D. Karp on Wed Jan 18, 2006:
Gene left-end position adjusted based on analysis performed in the 2005 E. coli annotation update [Riley06 ].
Markus Krummenacker on Tue Oct 14, 1997:
Gene object created from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Carty99: Carty SM, Sreekumar KR, Raetz CR (1999). "Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein." J Biol Chem 1999;274(14);9677-85. PMID: 10092655

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Klein09a: Klein G, Lindner B, Brabetz W, Brade H, Raina S (2009). "Escherichia coli K-12 Suppressor-free Mutants Lacking Early Glycosyltransferases and Late Acyltransferases: minimal lipopolysaccharide structure and induction of envelope stress response." J Biol Chem 284(23);15369-89. PMID: 19346244

Mansilla04: Mansilla MC, Cybulski LE, Albanesi D, de Mendoza D (2004). "Control of membrane lipid fluidity by molecular thermosensors." J Bacteriol 186(20);6681-8. PMID: 15466018

Raetz02: Raetz CR, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins." Annu Rev Biochem 71;635-700. PMID: 12045108

Raetz07: Raetz CR, Reynolds CM, Trent MS, Bishop RE (2007). "Lipid A modification systems in gram-negative bacteria." Annu Rev Biochem 76;295-329. PMID: 17362200

Riley06: Riley M, Abe T, Arnaud MB, Berlyn MK, Blattner FR, Chaudhuri RR, Glasner JD, Horiuchi T, Keseler IM, Kosuge T, Mori H, Perna NT, Plunkett G, Rudd KE, Serres MH, Thomas GH, Thomson NR, Wishart D, Wanner BL (2006). "Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005." Nucleic Acids Res 34(1);1-9. PMID: 16397293

Trent04: Trent MS (2004). "Biosynthesis, transport, and modification of lipid A." Biochem Cell Biol 82(1);71-86. PMID: 15052329

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

VorachekWarren02: Vorachek-Warren MK, Carty SM, Lin S, Cotter RJ, Raetz CR (2002). "An Escherichia coli mutant lacking the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis: absence of unsaturated acyl chains and antibiotic hypersensitivity at 12 degrees C." J Biol Chem 277(16);14186-93. PMID: 11830594

VorachekWarren02a: Vorachek-Warren MK, Ramirez S, Cotter RJ, Raetz CR (2002). "A triple mutant of Escherichia coli lacking secondary acyl chains on lipid A." J Biol Chem 277(16);14194-205. PMID: 11830595

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Rezuchova03: Rezuchova B, Miticka H, Homerova D, Roberts M, Kormanec J (2003). "New members of the Escherichia coli sigmaE regulon identified by a two-plasmid system." FEMS Microbiol Lett 225(1);1-7. PMID: 12900013

Rhodius05: Rhodius VA, Suh WC, Nonaka G, West J, Gross CA (2005). "Conserved and variable functions of the sigmaE stress response in related genomes." PLoS Biol 4(1);e2. PMID: 16336047

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Sat Oct 10, 2015, biocyc12.