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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: Fur



Gene: fur Accession Numbers: EG10359 (EcoCyc), b0683, ECK0671

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of:
Fur-Fe+2
Fur-Fe2+ DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator (extended summary available)

Citations: [Schaffer85, Bagg87, Saito91, Coy91, Hantke82, Hantke81]

Gene Citations: [PerezMartin93, De88, Schaffer85, Zheng99]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [709,423 <- 709,869] (15.29 centisomes)
Length: 447 bp / 148 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 16.795 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 5.91

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0002327 , CGSC:18286 , DIP:DIP-31858N , EchoBASE:EB0354 , EcoGene:EG10359 , EcoliWiki:b0683 , Mint:MINT-1312814 , ModBase:P0A9A9 , OU-Microarray:b0683 , PortEco:fur , PR:PRO_000022737 , Pride:P0A9A9 , Protein Model Portal:P0A9A9 , RefSeq:NP_415209 , RegulonDB:EG10359 , SMR:P0A9A9 , String:511145.b0683 , Swiss-Model:P0A9A9 , UniProt:P0A9A9

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002481 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011991 , PDB:Structure:2FU4 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01475

In Paralogous Gene Group: 178 (2 members)

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fur + Fe2+ = Fur-Fe+2

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0045892 - negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
Molecular Function: GO:0008270 - zinc ion binding Inferred from experiment [Katayama02]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0003700 - sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0046872 - metal ion binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, LopezCampistrou05]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated regulon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level repressor

DNA binding site length: 15 base-pairs

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Essentiality data for fur knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Subunit of: Fur-Fe+2

Subunit composition of Fur-Fe+2 = [Fur][Fe2+]

Component of: Fur-Fe2+ DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator (extended summary available)

Sequence Length: 148 AAs

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fur + Fe2+ = Fur-Fe+2

MultiFun Terms: information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated regulon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level repressor


Subunit of: Fur-Fe2+ DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Subunit composition of Fur-Fe2+ DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator = [(Fur)(Fe2+)]2
         Fur-Fe+2 = (Fur)(Fe2+)

Summary:
The transcriptional activator FUR, for "Ferric Uptake Regulation," is capable of controlling its own synthesis [Coulton86, Chen07, Newman99, De88] and controls the transcription of genes involved in iron homeostasis [Hantke01, Vassinova00, DAutreaux02, Angerer98, Chen07, Kammler93, Newman99, Griggs89, Outten04, Sauer90, deLorenzo87] and a minor sigma factor that initiates transcription of ferric citrate transport genes in response to the presence of periplasmic iron(III) dicitrate [Chen07, Arechaga03, Angerer98]. This regulator also participates in the regulation of transcription of many other genes involved in different cellular functions: flagellum chemotaxis [Stojiljkovic94], methionine biosynthesis [Stojiljkovic94], acid and oxidative stresses [Tardat93, Vassinova00], metal ion stress [Patzer01, Koch07, Puskarova02], resistance to cobalt and nickel [Sumi06], the tricarboxylic acid cycle [Tseng97, Zhang05], glycolysis and gluconeogenesis [Vassinova00], respiration [Stojiljkovic94, Tseng97, Zhang05], porins [Zhang05], purine metabolism [Stojiljkovic94], 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate biosynthesis [Brickman90], phage DNA packaging [Vassinova00], etc.

FUR is a transcriptional repressor but also can be an activator; the positive regulation of this regulator is mediated by the indirect effect of RhyB, which is an antisense small RNA [Lee07, Masse03, Semsey06, Masse05, Masse02, Vecerek03].

FUR is a sensor of the concentration of intracellular iron, and the genetic repression occurs when the physiological inducer, iron (Fe2+), binds to FUR. This cofactor is required for DNA binding [Mills05, Lee07]. FUR also is considered a metalloregulatory protein and can sense different divalent metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) [deLorenzo87, Althaus99, Lee07, Clarke01a, Mills05, Pecqueur06, Jabour09]. Transcriptomic and statistical modeling analyses with Zn concentration shifts showed a transient change in the activity of the iron regulator Fur and of the oxidative stress regulator SoxS; these findings suggest a competitive binding mechanism for the physiology of Zn and Fe uptake [Graham12]. On the other hand, D'Autréaux et al. showed that nitric oxide, a radical that is potentially toxic, inhibits the DNA binding of this repressor [Spiro06, DAutreaux02].

In the presence of iron, FUR binds in tandem to possible inverted repeat sequences in the intergenic region to repress transcription by overlapping the -35 box of the regulated promoter. The FUR-binding sites were previously represented as regions of 19 bp, which were determined by footprinting of several promoter sequences [deLorenzo87, Griggs89, Stojiljkovic94, Saito91]. Different aligments and computational analysis of these sequences showed different overlapping 15-bp sequences: TGATAATnATTATCA, consisting of two inverted repeats of 7 bp separated by 1 bp [Baichoo02, Chen07]. Experimental support for this consensus sequence was obtained from footprinting, site-directed mutagenesis experiments, analysis of the affinity and stoichiometry of DNA binding, gel retardation assays, etc. [Baichoo02, Lavrrar03]. Currently there are different interpretations and models to explain how FUR could overlap inverted repeats in tandem [Baichoo02, Chen07, Lavrrar03, Hamed06].

Citations: [Schaffer85, Bagg87, Coy91]

Sequence Length: 148 AAs

MultiFun Terms: information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated regulon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level repressor

Credits:
Created 26-Oct-2007 by Gama-Castro S , UNAM

DNA binding site length: 19 base-pairs

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Consensus DNA Binding Sequence: gatAATgATTATcATTatc

Regulated Transcription Units (66 total): ?

Notes:


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Otsuka07, UniProt13]
UniProt: Removed.
Protein-Segment 2 -> 84
[UniProt13]
UniProt: DNA-binding; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity.
Chain 2 -> 148
[UniProt13]
UniProt: Ferric uptake regulation protein.
Metal-Binding-Site 33
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Zinc; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 81
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Zinc; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Protein-Segment 85 -> 148
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Dimerization; Sequence Annotation Type: region of interest; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Protein-Segment 86 -> 90
[UniProt09]
UniProt: His-rich; Sequence Annotation Type: compositionally biased region;
Metal-Binding-Site 87
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Iron; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 89
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Iron; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 90
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Zinc; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 93
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Zinc;
Metal-Binding-Site 96
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Zinc;
Metal-Binding-Site 101
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Zinc; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 108
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Iron; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Metal-Binding-Site 125
[UniProt10b]
UniProt: Iron; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b0683 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10359; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Althaus99: Althaus EW, Outten CE, Olson KE, Cao H, O'Halloran TV (1999). "The ferric uptake regulation (Fur) repressor is a zinc metalloprotein." Biochemistry 38(20);6559-69. PMID: 10350474

Angerer98: Angerer A, Braun V (1998). "Iron regulates transcription of the Escherichia coli ferric citrate transport genes directly and through the transcription initiation proteins." Arch Microbiol 1998;169(6);483-90. PMID: 9575233

Arechaga03: Arechaga I, Miroux B, Runswick MJ, Walker JE (2003). "Over-expression of Escherichia coli F1F(o)-ATPase subunit a is inhibited by instability of the uncB gene transcript." FEBS Lett 547(1-3);97-100. PMID: 12860393

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bagg87: Bagg A, Neilands JB (1987). "Ferric uptake regulation protein acts as a repressor, employing iron (II) as a cofactor to bind the operator of an iron transport operon in Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1987;26(17);5471-7. PMID: 2823881

Baichoo02: Baichoo N, Helmann JD (2002). "Recognition of DNA by Fur: a reinterpretation of the Fur box consensus sequence." J Bacteriol 184(21);5826-32. PMID: 12374814

Brickman90: Brickman TJ, Ozenberger BA, McIntosh MA (1990). "Regulation of divergent transcription from the iron-responsive fepB-entC promoter-operator regions in Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 1990;212(4);669-82. PMID: 2139473

Chen07: Chen Z, Lewis KA, Shultzaberger RK, Lyakhov IG, Zheng M, Doan B, Storz G, Schneider TD (2007). "Discovery of Fur binding site clusters in Escherichia coli by information theory models." Nucleic Acids Res 35(20);6762-77. PMID: 17921503

Clarke01a: Clarke TE, Tari LW, Vogel HJ (2001). "Structural biology of bacterial iron uptake systems." Curr Top Med Chem 1(1);7-30. PMID: 11895294

Coulton86: Coulton JW, Mason P, Cameron DR, Carmel G, Jean R, Rode HN (1986). "Protein fusions of beta-galactosidase to the ferrichrome-iron receptor of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1986;165(1);181-92. PMID: 3079747

Coy91: Coy M, Neilands JB (1991). "Structural dynamics and functional domains of the fur protein." Biochemistry 1991;30(33);8201-10. PMID: 1868094

DAutreaux02: D'Autreaux B, Touati D, Bersch B, Latour JM, Michaud-Soret I (2002). "Direct inhibition by nitric oxide of the transcriptional ferric uptake regulation protein via nitrosylation of the iron." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(26);16619-24. PMID: 12475930

De88: De Lorenzo V, Herrero M, Giovannini F, Neilands JB (1988). "Fur (ferric uptake regulation) protein and CAP (catabolite-activator protein) modulate transcription of fur gene in Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1988;173(3);537-46. PMID: 2836193

deLorenzo87: de Lorenzo V, Wee S, Herrero M, Neilands JB (1987). "Operator sequences of the aerobactin operon of plasmid ColV-K30 binding the ferric uptake regulation (fur) repressor." J Bacteriol 169(6);2624-30. PMID: 3294800

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Graham12: Graham AI, Sanguinetti G, Bramall N, McLeod CW, Poole RK (2012). "Dynamics of a starvation-to-surfeit shift: a transcriptomic and modelling analysis of the bacterial response to zinc reveals transient behaviour of the Fur and SoxS regulators." Microbiology 158(Pt 1);284-92. PMID: 22016571

Griggs89: Griggs DW, Konisky J (1989). "Mechanism for iron-regulated transcription of the Escherichia coli cir gene: metal-dependent binding of fur protein to the promoters." J Bacteriol 1989;171(2);1048-52. PMID: 2644221

Hamed06: Hamed MY, Al-Jabour S (2006). "Iron(II) triggered conformational changes in Escherichia coli fur upon DNA binding: a study using molecular modeling." J Mol Graph Model 25(2);234-46. PMID: 16443380

Hantke01: Hantke K (2001). "Iron and metal regulation in bacteria." Curr Opin Microbiol 4(2);172-7. PMID: 11282473

Hantke81: Hantke K (1981). "Regulation of ferric iron transport in Escherichia coli K12: isolation of a constitutive mutant." Mol Gen Genet 182(2);288-92. PMID: 7026976

Hantke82: Hantke Klaus (1982). "Negative control of iron uptake system in Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiology Letters.

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jabour09: Jabour S, Hamed MY (2009). "Binding of the Zn(2+) ion to ferric uptake regulation protein from E. coli and the competition with Fe(2+) binding: a molecular modeling study of the effect on DNA binding and conformational changes of Fur." J Comput Aided Mol Des 23(4);199-208. PMID: 19023664

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kammler93: Kammler M, Schon C, Hantke K (1993). "Characterization of the ferrous iron uptake system of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(19);6212-9. PMID: 8407793

Katayama02: Katayama A, Tsujii A, Wada A, Nishino T, Ishihama A (2002). "Systematic search for zinc-binding proteins in Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 269(9);2403-13. PMID: 11985624

Koch07: Koch D, Nies DH, Grass G (2007). "The RcnRA (YohLM) system of Escherichia coli: A connection between nickel, cobalt and iron homeostasis." Biometals 20(5):759-71. PMID: 17120142

Lavrrar03: Lavrrar JL, McIntosh MA (2003). "Architecture of a fur binding site: a comparative analysis." J Bacteriol 185(7);2194-202. PMID: 12644489

Lee07: Lee JW, Helmann JD (2007). "Functional specialization within the Fur family of metalloregulators." Biometals 20(3-4);485-99. PMID: 17216355

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Masse02: Masse E, Gottesman S (2002). "A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(7);4620-5. PMID: 11917098

Masse03: Masse E, Escorcia FE, Gottesman S (2003). "Coupled degradation of a small regulatory RNA and its mRNA targets in Escherichia coli." Genes Dev 17(19);2374-83. PMID: 12975324

Masse05: Masse E, Vanderpool CK, Gottesman S (2005). "Effect of RyhB small RNA on global iron use in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 187(20);6962-71. PMID: 16199566

Mills05: Mills SA, Marletta MA (2005). "Metal binding characteristics and role of iron oxidation in the ferric uptake regulator from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 44(41);13553-9. PMID: 16216078

Newman99: Newman DL, Shapiro JA (1999). "Differential fiu-lacZ fusion regulation linked to Escherichia coli colony development." Mol Microbiol 33(1);18-32. PMID: 10411720

Otsuka07: Otsuka Y, Koga M, Iwamoto A, Yonesaki T (2007). "A role of RnlA in the RNase LS activity from Escherichia coli." Genes Genet Syst 82(4);291-9. PMID: 17895580

Outten04: Outten FW, Djaman O, Storz G (2004). "A suf operon requirement for Fe-S cluster assembly during iron starvation in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 52(3);861-72. PMID: 15101990

Patzer01: Patzer SI, Hantke K (2001). "Dual repression by Fe(2+)-Fur and Mn(2+)-MntR of the mntH gene, encoding an NRAMP-like Mn(2+) transporter in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 183(16);4806-13. PMID: 11466284

Pecqueur06: Pecqueur L, D'Autreaux B, Dupuy J, Nicolet Y, Jacquamet L, Brutscher B, Michaud-Soret I, Bersch B (2006). "Structural changes of Escherichia coli ferric uptake regulator during metal-dependent dimerization and activation explored by NMR and X-ray crystallography." J Biol Chem 281(30);21286-95. PMID: 16690618

PerezMartin93: Perez-Martin J, Espinosa M (1993). "Protein-induced bending as a transcriptional switch." Science 1993;260(5109);805-7. PMID: 8387228

Puskarova02: Puskarova A, Ferianc P, Kormanec J, Homerova D, Farewell A, Nystrom T (2002). "Regulation of yodA encoding a novel cadmium-induced protein in Escherichia coli." Microbiology 2002;148(Pt 12);3801-11. PMID: 12480884

Saito91: Saito T, Williams RJ (1991). "The binding of the ferric uptake regulation protein to a DNA fragment." Eur J Biochem 1991;197(1);43-7. PMID: 2015825

Sauer90: Sauer M, Hantke K, Braun V (1990). "Sequence of the fhuE outer-membrane receptor gene of Escherichia coli K12 and properties of mutants." Mol Microbiol 4(3);427-37. PMID: 2162465

Schaffer85: Schaffer S, Hantke K, Braun V (1985). "Nucleotide sequence of the iron regulatory gene fur." Mol Gen Genet 1985;200(1);110-3. PMID: 2993806

Semsey06: Semsey S, Andersson AM, Krishna S, Jensen MH, Masse E, Sneppen K (2006). "Genetic regulation of fluxes: iron homeostasis of Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 34(17);4960-7. PMID: 16982641

Spiro06: Spiro S (2006). "Nitric oxide-sensing mechanisms in Escherichia coli." Biochem Soc Trans 34(Pt 1);200-2. PMID: 16417522

Stojiljkovic94: Stojiljkovic I, Baumler AJ, Hantke K (1994). "Fur regulon in gram-negative bacteria. Identification and characterization of new iron-regulated Escherichia coli genes by a fur titration assay." J Mol Biol 236(2);531-45. PMID: 8107138

Sumi06: Sumi T, Sekino H (2006). "A crossover from metal to plasma in dense fluid hydrogen." J Chem Phys 125(19);194526. PMID: 17129142

Tardat93: Tardat B, Touati D (1993). "Iron and oxygen regulation of Escherichia coli MnSOD expression: competition between the global regulators Fur and ArcA for binding to DNA." Mol Microbiol 1993;9(1);53-63. PMID: 8412671

Tseng97: Tseng CP (1997). "Regulation of fumarase (fumB) gene expression in Escherichia coli in response to oxygen, iron and heme availability: role of the arcA, fur, and hemA gene products." FEMS Microbiol Lett 157(1);67-72. PMID: 9418241

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10b: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt13: UniProt Consortium (2013). "UniProt version 2013-08 released on 2013-08-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vassinova00: Vassinova N, Kozyrev D (2000). "A method for direct cloning of fur-regulated genes: identification of seven new fur-regulated loci in Escherichia coli." Microbiology 146 Pt 12;3171-82. PMID: 11101675

Vecerek03: Vecerek B, Moll I, Afonyushkin T, Kaberdin V, Blasi U (2003). "Interaction of the RNA chaperone Hfq with mRNAs: direct and indirect roles of Hfq in iron metabolism of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 50(3);897-909. PMID: 14617150

Zhang05: Zhang Z, Gosset G, Barabote R, Gonzalez CS, Cuevas WA, Saier MH (2005). "Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 187(3);980-90. PMID: 15659676

Zheng99: Zheng M, Doan B, Schneider TD, Storz G (1999). "OxyR and SoxRS regulation of fur." J Bacteriol 1999;181(15);4639-43. PMID: 10419964

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Kumar11: Kumar R, Shimizu K (2011). "Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures." Microb Cell Fact 10;3. PMID: 21272324

Martin99: Martin RG, Gillette WK, Rhee S, Rosner JL (1999). "Structural requirements for marbox function in transcriptional activation of mar/sox/rob regulon promoters in Escherichia coli: sequence, orientation and spatial relationship to the core promoter." Mol Microbiol 1999;34(3);431-41. PMID: 10564485

Pomposiello01: Pomposiello PJ, Bennik MH, Demple B (2001). "Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the Escherichia coli responses to superoxide stress and sodium salicylate." J Bacteriol 183(13);3890-902. PMID: 11395452

Varghese07: Varghese S, Wu A, Park S, Imlay KR, Imlay JA (2007). "Submicromolar hydrogen peroxide disrupts the ability of Fur protein to control free-iron levels in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 64(3);822-30. PMID: 17462026

Vecerek07: Vecerek B, Moll I, Blasi U (2007). "Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding." EMBO J 26(4);965-75. PMID: 17268550


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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