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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: Targlu-Me

Subunit composition of chemotaxis signaling complex - aspartate sensing = [(CheA)2][CheW]2[(Tar)2]3
         CheA(L) histidine kinase = (CheA)2
         methyl accepting chemotaxis protein Tar = (Tar)2 (extended summary available)

Alternative forms of Targlu-Me:
chemotaxis signaling complex - aspartate sensing (extended summary available)
Targlu
Targln

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Not in pathways:
Targlu-Me + H2O → methanol + Targlu

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + TargluS-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + Targlu-Me

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?


Subunit of Targlu-Me: CheA(L) histidine kinase

Synonyms: chemotaxis kinase-phosphotransferase CheA(L)

Gene: cheA Accession Numbers: EG10146 (EcoCyc), b1888, ECK1889

Locations: inner membrane, cytosol

Subunit composition of CheA(L) histidine kinase = [CheA]2

Map Position: [1,971,384 <- 1,973,348] (42.49 centisomes)
Length: 1965 bp / 654 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 71.382 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 4.96

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0000160 - phosphorelay signal transduction system Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Igo89]
GO:0016310 - phosphorylation Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Igo89]
GO:0031400 - negative regulation of protein modification process Inferred from experiment [Barak04a]
GO:0046777 - protein autophosphorylation Inferred from experiment [Igo89]
GO:0006935 - chemotaxis Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0007165 - signal transduction Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0018106 - peptidyl-histidine phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, GOA01a]
GO:0023014 - signal transduction by phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Thakor11, Rajagopala09, OConnor09, Hao09]
GO:0000155 - phosphorelay sensor kinase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0004673 - protein histidine kinase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0004871 - signal transducer activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016301 - kinase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016772 - transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment [Ridgway77]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Ridgway77]
GO:0005622 - intracellular Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes motility, chemotaxis, energytaxis (aerotaxis, redoxtaxis etc)
information transfer protein related posttranslational modification

Unification Links: EcoliWiki:b1888 , ModBase:P07363 , Swiss-Model:P07363

Relationship Links: UniProt:RELATED-TO:P07363

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Aerotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction System , Chemotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction :
CheA + ATP → CheA-P + ADP

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Aerotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction System :
CheY + CheA-P → CheY-Pasp + CheA

Chemotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction :
CheA-P + CheB → CheA + CheB-Pasp
CheY + CheA-P → CheY-Pasp + CheA

Summary:
The cheA gene is translated in two isoforms. The small form, CheA(S), arises due to a second translational start site 291 bases downstream of the translation start site for the large form, CheA(L) [Hoch95, Neidhardt96].

The "Spliced Nucleotide Sequence" link above refers to the smaller variant, but note that no splicing occurs.
CheA is the histidine kinase component of the chemotaxis two-component signal transduction complex. The chemotaxis system propagates changes in extracellular chemical concentrations to the flagellar switch complex to regulate swimming behavior. CheA and CheY comprise a two-component signal transduction system where the signal generated by the periplasmic receptor occupancy through a protein-protein interaction with the CheA cytoplasmic component is transmitted via phosphorylation from autophosphorylating histidine kinase CheA to CheY (the response regulator) [Welch93]. The receptor complexes (MCPI, MCPII, MCPIII and MCPIV) are ternary structures consisting of receptors, CheA and the adaptor protein CheW.

Escherichia coli expresses CheA as both a full length molecule as well as a shorter version translated from an alternative start codon known as CheA(short), which contains a catalytic domain but no kinase substrate domain [Kofoid91]. As a result, a heterodimer containing a full-length CheA alongside a CheA(s) exhibits a fivefold higher autophosphorylation rate than the CheA homodimer [Levit96].

CheA autophosphorylates on His48 in the presence of ATP in vitro. The phosphate group on CheA can be transferred to CheB or to CheY in vitro [Hess88a, Hess88]. CheA is a dimer in solution. Two CheW monomers bind per CheA dimer [Gegner91]. CheA autophosphorylation results from transphosphorylation within the dimer [Swanson93]. In an in vitro reconstituted system, autophosphorylation of purified CheA is stimulated by addition of wild type Tar receptor and CheW protein [Borkovich90, Borkovich89]. CheA contains separate functional domains associated with kinase activity, CheY binding, phosphotransfer activity and receptor binding [Swanson93a, Bourret93, Morrison94, Stewart00, Stewart04, Bhatnagar12]. CheA interacts with chemoreceptors in a manner similar to CheW; CheA and CheW bind to the same region of chemoreceptors due to structural similarity between CheW and the regulatory or P5 domain of CheA [Wang12c]. Chemotaxis receptors control kinase activity by regulating CheA domain mobility [Briegel13].

Citations: [Zhao06a, Levit02, Francis04, Morrison97, Piasta13, Garzon96, Thakor11]

Gene Citations: [Silverman77a, Mirel92]

Essentiality data for cheA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Subunit of Targlu-Me: CheW

Synonyms: purine-binding chemotaxis protein

Gene: cheW Accession Numbers: EG10149 (EcoCyc), b1887, ECK1888

Locations: cytosol

Sequence Length: 167 AAs

Molecular Weight [Bairoch93]: 18.084 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 4.54

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006935 - chemotaxis Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Liu89a]
GO:0007165 - signal transduction Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Gegner91, Liu89a]
GO:0051649 - establishment of localization in cell Inferred from experiment [Kentner06]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Arifuzzaman, 2006, Rajagopala09]
GO:0004871 - signal transducer activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment [Ridgway77]
GO:0005622 - intracellular Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes motility, chemotaxis, energytaxis (aerotaxis, redoxtaxis etc)
regulation type of regulation posttranscriptional inhibition / activation of enzymes

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-48236N , EcoliWiki:b1887 , Mint:MINT-1283783 , ModBase:P0A964 , PR:PRO_000022280 , Protein Model Portal:P0A964 , RefSeq:NP_416401 , SMR:P0A964 , String:511145.b1887 , UniProt:P0A964

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002545 , PDB:Structure:2HO9 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01584 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50851 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00260

Summary:
CheW is involved in the transmission of sensory signals from the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) to the flagellar motors. CheW provides a physical coupling of CheA to the MCPs allowing regulated phosphotransfer to the CheY and CheB proteins. When CheW is complexed with CheA(L) and CheA(S) in a 1:1:1 ratio the autophosphorylation rate of CheA is increased [Bairoch93, Gegner91, Liu89a, McNally91, Liu97a, Neidhardt96]. Excess levels of CheW disrupt CheA activation and chemotactic response [Liu89a, Sanders89, Boukhvalova02] possibly by disrupting the normal formation of receptor complexes [Studdert05, Cardozo10].

Citations: [Underbakke11]

Essentiality data for cheW knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Subunit of Targlu-Me: methyl accepting chemotaxis protein Tar

Synonyms: cheM, MCP-II, aspartate chemoreceptor protein, Tar dimer, chemotaxis signaling protein II

Gene: tar Accession Numbers: EG10988 (EcoCyc), b1886, ECK1887

Locations: inner membrane

Subunit composition of methyl accepting chemotaxis protein Tar = [Tar]2

Map Position: [1,969,054 <- 1,970,715] (42.44 centisomes)
Length: 1662 bp / 553 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 59.944 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 60.0 kD (experimental) [Wang80 ]

pI: 5.73

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006935 - chemotaxis Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Silverman77]
GO:0007165 - signal transduction Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0004871 - signal transducer activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Springer77]
GO:0004888 - transmembrane signaling receptor activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Springer77]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Arifuzzaman, 2006, Rajagopala09]
GO:0043424 - protein histidine kinase binding Inferred from experiment [Gegner92]
Cellular Component: GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment [Ridgway77, Krikos83, Lynch91]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes motility, chemotaxis, energytaxis (aerotaxis, redoxtaxis etc)
cell structure membrane
regulation type of regulation posttranscriptional inhibition / activation of enzymes

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-10956N , DisProt:DP00294 , EcoliWiki:b1886 , ModBase:P07017 , PR:PRO_000024026 , Pride:P07017 , Protein Model Portal:P07017 , RefSeq:NP_416400 , SMR:P07017 , String:511145.b1886 , Swiss-Model:P07017 , UniProt:P07017

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003122 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003660 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004089 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004090 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004091 , PDB:Structure:2ASR , PDB:Structure:2L9G , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00015 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00672 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02203 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00260 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00538 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50111 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50885 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00283 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00304 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00319

Summary:
The tar gene product is one of four methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in E. coli K-12. MCP-II is the receptor for the attractants aspartate and maltose and the repellents nickel and cobalt [Reader79, Wang80, Springer77]. Tar is also responsible for mediating an attractant response to phenol [Imae87] and Tsr and Tar mediate a chemotactic response to changes in pH [Krikos85].

E. coli Tar is a homodimeric inner membrane protein; the Tar monomer consists of a periplasmic, ligand-sensing domain, two trans-membrane segments (TM1 and TM2) and a cytoplasmic signaling domain which is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and is predicted to contain 4 methylation sites [Lynch91, Bowie95, Le96]. The cytoplasmic domain of Tar is subject to methylation and demethylation at the carboxyl groups of glutamic acid residues [DeFranco80, Engstrom80, Krikos83]. Methylation and demethylation of MCPs in E. coli K-12 is catalysed by the CheR methyltransferase and the CheB methylesterase.

Aspartate binds directly to the Tar receptor whereas maltose detection is mediated via the periplasmic maltose binding protein [Manson85, Wolff88, Mowbray87, Gardina92, Gardina97, Gardina98, Zhang99]. Aspartate binding to a purified Tar receptor generates a downward piston motion of TM1 relative to TM2 [Ottemann99]

The cytoplasmic domains of the four E. coli MCPs have a high degree of sequence similarity [Krikos83, Le96, Alexander07]. Tar contains a HAMP domain (present in histidine kinases, adenylate cyclases, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, phosphatases) which is located between the transmembrane region of the molecule and the cytoplasmic signalling region. Tsr HAMP domains have been shown to mediate input/ouptut signaling [Ames08, Zhou09, Zhou11a, Ames13] (and reviewed in [Parkinson10]).

E. coli MCPs form ternary complexes with the cytoplasmic proteins CheA and CheW [Gegner92]. Tar and Tsr are considered to be high-abundance receptors while Tap and Trg are low-abundance [Hazelbauer81, Hazelbauer81a, Harayama82].

Novel chemoeffectors specific for Tar have been identified as have two antagonistic compounds which bind to Tar but do not induce a chemotactic response [Bi13].

tar: taxis to aspartate and from repellents

Reviews: [Stock00, Hazelbauer08]
Comments: [Gerstein99, Stock96, Manson09, Manson11]

Citations: [Pakula92, Boyd80, Chelsky80, Stoddard92, Falke87, Wright11, Cochran96, Tatsuno96, Gardina96, Nishiyama99, Draheim05, Lai08, Hazelbauer69, Mesibov72]

Gene Citations: [Kundu97, Arnosti89, Slocum83, Parkinson82, Parkinson78]

Essentiality data for tar knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

References

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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