Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
twitter

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: trehalose PTS permease

Synonyms: EIITre, Enzyme II Tre

Subunit composition of trehalose PTS permease = [TreB]2[Crr]
         trehalose PTS permease - TreB subunit = TreB (summary available)
         Enzyme IIAGlc; Crr = Crr (extended summary available)

Summary:
TreB, the trehalose PTS permease, belongs to the functional superfamily of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTSsugar). The PTSsugar transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its sugar substrates in a process called group translocation (reviewed in [Postma93]). TreB together with Crr (Enzyme IIAGlc or Enzyme IIACrr) takes up exogenous trehalose, releasing the phosphate ester into the cell cytoplasm for hydrolysis by catabolic trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase and subsequent metabolism via glycolysis (see trehalose degradation I (low osmolarity).

TreB, the Enzyme IITre complex, possesses two domains in a single polypeptide chain with the domain order IIB-IIC [Klein95]. The IIC domain is predicted to contain 8 membrane spanning regions and to function as the permease proper. The IIB domain is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and contains characteristic amino acid sequence motifs that are believed to be involved in phosphoryl transfer [Klein95]. TreB does not contain an Enzyme IIA domain but relies on the soluble protein Enzyme IIACrr for this function. TreB/Crr is a member of the PTS Glucose-Glucoside family of transporters [Saier14].

The overall PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer reaction, requiring the two general energy coupling proteins of the PTS, Enzyme I (PtsI) and HPr (PtsH), as well as the soluble Enzyme IIACrr protein and the two domains of the Enzyme IItre complex can be represented as:

PEP --> Enzyme I-Phis189 --> HPr-Phis15 --> Enzyme IIAGlc-Phis91 --> Enzyme IIB-Pcys29-(Enzyme IIC) -> trehalose-6-P

TreB transports trehalose with micromolar affinity [Boos90].

The tre operon is inducible in wild type E. coli K-12 by external trehelose and repressed at high osmolarity (250mM NaCl) [Boos90]. The treBC operon contains the treB gene encoding the Enzyme IITre and the treC gene encoding trehelose-6-phosphate hydrolase that hydrolyzes the α,α-glycosidic bond in trehalose-6-phosphate [Rimmele94]. The monocistronic treR operon, encoding the repressor of the treBC operon is upstream of the treBC operon and is transcribed in the same direction. tre operon expression is under the control of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) complex as well as that of TreR.

E. coli K-12 can also synthesize trehalose as an osmoprotectant (see trehalose biosynthesis I)

Review: [Strom93]

Citations: [Marechal84]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015771 - trehalose transport Inferred from experiment [Klein95]
Molecular Function: GO:0090589 - protein-phosphocysteine-trehalose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment [Marechal84, Klein95]


Enzymatic reaction of: trehalose PTS permease

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
α,α-trehalose
16.0
[Boos90]

pH(opt): 6 [BRENDA14, Saier80], 6.5 [BRENDA14, Jacobson83], 7 [BRENDA14, Jacobson79], 7.5 [BRENDA14, Sutrina87], 8.5 [BRENDA14, Jacobson83], 9 [BRENDA14, Jacobson79], 9.5 [BRENDA14, Saier80]


Subunit of trehalose PTS permease: trehalose PTS permease - TreB subunit

Synonyms: Enzyme IIBCtre, enzyme IIBC component of trehalose PTS

Gene: treB Accession Numbers: EG12127 (EcoCyc), b4240, ECK4235

Locations: inner membrane

Sequence Length: 473 AAs

Molecular Weight: 51.081 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009401 - phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01, Boos87, Marechal84]
GO:0015771 - trehalose transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Marechal84, Boos90, Klein95]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016310 - phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0034219 - carbohydrate transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0090589 - protein-phosphocysteine-trehalose phosphotransferase system transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment [Marechal84, Boos90, Klein95]
GO:0008982 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
GO:0015574 - trehalose transmembrane transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0016301 - kinase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Daley05, Boos90]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [Klein95]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism central intermediary metabolism misc. glucose metabolism
transport Group Translocators Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS)

Unification Links: EcoliWiki:b4240 , Mint:MINT-6478335 , ModBase:P36672 , PR:PRO_000024107 , Pride:P36672 , Protein Model Portal:P36672 , RefSeq:NP_418661 , SMR:P36672 , String:511145.b4240 , UniProt:P36672

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001996 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003352 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004719 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011296 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011535 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013013 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018113 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00367 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02378 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01035 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51098 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51103

Summary:
TreB contains PTS Enzyme IIB and IIC domains [Klein95]

Essentiality data for treB knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Subunit of trehalose PTS permease: Enzyme IIAGlc; Crr

Synonyms: TreD, Tgs, Iex, Gsr, EIIAGlc, Enzyme IIIGlc, EIIIGlc, IIIGlc

Gene: crr Accession Numbers: EG10165 (EcoCyc), b2417, ECK2412

Locations: inner membrane, cytosol

Sequence Length: 169 AAs

Molecular Weight: 18.251 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 20.0 kD (experimental) [Dorschug84]

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009401 - phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01, Buhr94, Dahl04, Boos90]
GO:0043610 - regulation of carbohydrate utilization Inferred from experiment [Saier76]
GO:0045912 - negative regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process Inferred from experiment [Dean90, Bao13, Novotny85, Nelson83]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016310 - phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0016301 - kinase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, Dorschug84, Presper89, Wang00, Cai03]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0046872 - metal ion binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, LopezCampistrou05, Lasserre06]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment [Lasserre06]
GO:0031234 - extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Wang00a, Chen13a]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Group Translocators Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS)

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-31863N , EcoliWiki:b2417 , PR:PRO_000022334 , Pride:P69783 , Protein Model Portal:P69783 , RefSeq:NP_416912 , SMR:P69783 , String:511145.b2417 , UniProt:P69783

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001127 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011055 , PDB:Structure:1F3G , PDB:Structure:1F3Z , PDB:Structure:1GGR , PDB:Structure:1GLA , PDB:Structure:1GLB , PDB:Structure:1GLC , PDB:Structure:1GLD , PDB:Structure:1GLE , PDB:Structure:1O2F , PDB:Structure:2F3G , PDB:Structure:4JBW , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00358 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00371 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51093

Summary:
EIIAGlc is an intermediate phosphotransfer protein in the uptake and phosphorylation of glucose [Buhr94], N-acetylmuramic acid [Dahl04] and trehalose [Boos90] and also probably interacts with MalX - a PTS permease whose physiological substrate is unclear [Reidl91]. EIIAGlc accepts a phosphoryl group from PtsH and transfers it to the the EIIB domain of the sugar PTS permeases.

EIIAGlc is phosphorylated by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in a reaction requiring PtsH and PtsI. EIIAGlc is phosphorylated at the N3 position of His90 [Dorschug84, Presper89]. Solution structures of the complex between PtsH and EIIAGlc and between EIIAGlc and EIIBGlc have been determined. The binding surface on EIIAGlc for EIIBGlc and PtsH overlap. There are both similarities and differences between the binding interaction of EIIAGlc with PtsH and EIIBGlc [Wang00, Cai03].

Two forms of EIIAGlc have been purified from E.coli K-12 and identified on the basis of electrophoretic mobility as EIIAGlcfast and EIIAGlcslow. EIIAGlcfast lacks an N-terminal heptapeptide region due to proteolytic activity which appears to reside in the outer membrane. The two forms are equally able to act as phosphoacceptors but EIIAGlcfast is an inefficient phosphodonor [Meadow86, Meadow82].

Crr or Enzyme IIAGlc also plays an important role in the regulation of carbon metabolism in E. coli K-12 ([Saier76] and reviewed in [Postma93] and [Deutscher06]). EIIAGlc is a negative regulator of several enzymes involved in the transport and metabolism of non-PTS carbohydrates such as glycerol, lactose, melibiose and maltose. Purified, unphosphorylated EIIAGlc binds to, and inhibits galactoside transport by the lactose permease in vitro [Nelson83, Osumi82]. Purified, unphosphorylated EIIAGlc binds to, and inhibits glycerol kinase in vitro [Novotny85, deBoer86].

EIIAGlc inhibits the activity of the maltose ABC transporter reconstituted in proteopliposomes [Dean90]. EIIAGlc interacts with the nucleotide binding domain and the C-terminal regulatory domain of the MalK dimer and inhibits the ATPase activity of the maltose transporter reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The stoichiometry of interaction between EIIAGlc and MalFGK2 is 2:1 [Bao13]. A crystal structure of EIIAGlc in complex with the maltose ABC transporter has been obtained. Two molecules of EIIAGlc interact with the MalK subunits and stabilise an inward facing conformation of the transporter. This interaction would prevent the structural rearrangements required for ATP hydrolysis and maltose transport. The phosphorylation site, His90, is located at the EIIAGlc-MalK interface, and is in its unphosphorylated form. Phosphorylation of the active histidine is predicted to disrupt the interface [Chen13a].

The N-terminal domain of EIIAGlc (residues 1-18) adopts a helical conformation in detergent micelles and in the presence of E. coli lipids. The N-terminal domain probably acts as a membrane anchor and allows EIIAGlc to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the inner membrane [Wang00a, Wang03]. Full-length EIIAGlc is concentrated near the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane via its N-terminal region [Chen13a].

EIIAGlc is also involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase activity although the precise mechanism remains unclear [Saier76a, Feucht80, Daniel84, Liberman86, Peterkofsky88, Levy90, Takahashi98]. A direct interaction between membrane tethered EIIAGlc (both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) and adenylate cyclase has been demonstrated in vitro [Park06a]. Adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by either phosphorylated or dephosphorylated EIIAGlc however phosphorylated EIIAGlc activates adenylate cyclase in the presence of a crude E. coli extract implying that regulation depends upon an additional unidentified factor [Park06a]. Phosphorylated EIIAGlc is a positive effector of adenylate cyclase activity while EIIAGlc does not affect basal activity [Reddy98].

crr insertion mutants were identified in a genetic screen for genes that are important for survival of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A crr deletion mutant has a moderate decrease in IR survival [Byrne14].

Reviews: [Chen93, Peterkofsky89]

crr: carbohydrate repression resistant

Citations: [Pelton92, Pelton91, Pelton93, Worthylake91, Meadow06]

Essentiality data for crr knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol No 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 No [Joyce06]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

References

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bao13: Bao H, Duong F (2013). "Phosphatidylglycerol directs binding and inhibitory action of EIIAGlc protein on the maltose transporter." J Biol Chem 288(33);23666-74. PMID: 23821551

Boos87: Boos W, Ehmann U, Bremer E, Middendorf A, Postma P (1987). "Trehalase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural gene and identification of the enzyme as a periplasmic protein induced under high osmolarity growth conditions." J Biol Chem 1987;262(27);13212-8. PMID: 2820965

Boos90: Boos W, Ehmann U, Forkl H, Klein W, Rimmele M, Postma P (1990). "Trehalose transport and metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 172(6);3450-61. PMID: 2160944

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Buhr94: Buhr A, Flukiger K, Erni B (1994). "The glucose transporter of Escherichia coli. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of functional domains." J Biol Chem 269(38);23437-43. PMID: 8089109

Byrne14: Byrne RT, Chen SH, Wood EA, Cabot EL, Cox MM (2014). "Surviving extreme exposure to ionizing radiation: Escherichia coli genes and pathways." J Bacteriol. PMID: 25049088

Cai03: Cai M, Williams DC, Wang G, Lee BR, Peterkofsky A, Clore GM (2003). "Solution structure of the phosphoryl transfer complex between the signal-transducing protein IIAGlucose and the cytoplasmic domain of the glucose transporter IICBGlucose of the Escherichia coli glucose phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 278(27);25191-206. PMID: 12716891

Chen13a: Chen S, Oldham ML, Davidson AL, Chen J (2013). "Carbon catabolite repression of the maltose transporter revealed by X-ray crystallography." Nature 499(7458);364-8. PMID: 23770568

Chen93: Chen Y, Fairbrother WJ, Wright PE (1993). "Three-dimensional structures of the central regulatory proteins of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr and enzyme IIAglc." J Cell Biochem 51(1);75-82. PMID: 8432747

Dahl04: Dahl U, Jaeger T, Nguyen BT, Sattler JM, Mayer C (2004). "Identification of a phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli required for growth on N-acetylmuramic acid." J Bacteriol 186(8);2385-92. PMID: 15060041

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

Daniel84: Daniel J (1984). "Enzyme III stimulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in an Escherichia coli crp mutant." J Bacteriol 157(3);940-1. PMID: 6321447

Dean90: Dean DA, Reizer J, Nikaido H, Saier MH (1990). "Regulation of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli by the glucose-specific enzyme III of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system. Characterization of inducer exclusion-resistant mutants and reconstitution of inducer exclusion in proteoliposomes." J Biol Chem 265(34);21005-10. PMID: 2250006

deBoer86: de Boer M, Broekhuizen CP, Postma PW (1986). "Regulation of glycerol kinase by enzyme IIIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system." J Bacteriol 167(1);393-5. PMID: 3013838

Deutscher06: Deutscher J, Francke C, Postma PW (2006). "How phosphotransferase system-related protein phosphorylation regulates carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70(4);939-1031. PMID: 17158705

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dorschug84: Dorschug M, Frank R, Kalbitzer HR, Hengstenberg W, Deutscher J (1984). "Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation site in enzyme IIIglc of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system." Eur J Biochem 144(1);113-9. PMID: 6383826

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Feucht80: Feucht BU, Saier MH (1980). "Fine control of adenylate cyclase by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium." J Bacteriol 141(2);603-10. PMID: 6245052

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jacobson79: Jacobson GR, Lee CA, Saier MH (1979). "Purification of the mannitol-specific enzyme II of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 254(2);249-52. PMID: 368051

Jacobson83: Jacobson GR, Lee CA, Leonard JE, Saier MH (1983). "Mannitol-specific enzyme II of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. I. Properties of the purified permease." J Biol Chem 258(17);10748-56. PMID: 6350293

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Klein95: Klein W, Horlacher R, Boos W (1995). "Molecular analysis of treB encoding the Escherichia coli enzyme II specific for trehalose." J Bacteriol 177(14);4043-52. PMID: 7608078

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Levy90: Levy S, Zeng GQ, Danchin A (1990). "Cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli strains bearing known deletions in the pts phosphotransferase operon." Gene 86(1);27-33. PMID: 2155859

Liberman86: Liberman E, Saffen D, Roseman S, Peterkofsky A (1986). "Inhibition of E. coli adenylate cyclase activity by inorganic orthophosphate is dependent on IIIglc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 141(3);1138-44. PMID: 3545197

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Marechal84: Marechal LR (1984). "Transport and metabolism of trehalose in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium." Arch Microbiol 137(1);70-3. PMID: 6370169

Meadow06: Meadow ND, Savtchenko RS, Remington SJ, Roseman S (2006). "Effects of mutations and truncations on the kinetic behavior of IIAGlc, a phosphocarrier and regulatory protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 281(17);11450-5. PMID: 16439362

Meadow82: Meadow ND, Roseman S (1982). "Sugar transport by the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Isolation and characterization of a glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein (IIIGlc) from Salmonella typhimurium." J Biol Chem 257(23);14526-37. PMID: 6754734

Meadow86: Meadow ND, Coyle P, Komoryia A, Anfinsen CB, Roseman S (1986). "Limited proteolysis of IIIGlc, a regulatory protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system, by membrane-associated enzymes from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 261(29);13504-9. PMID: 3531206

Nelson83: Nelson SO, Wright JK, Postma PW (1983). "The mechanism of inducer exclusion. Direct interaction between purified III of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and the lactose carrier of Escherichia coli." EMBO J 2(5);715-720. PMID: 16453452

Novotny85: Novotny MJ, Frederickson WL, Waygood EB, Saier MH (1985). "Allosteric regulation of glycerol kinase by enzyme IIIglc of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium." J Bacteriol 162(2);810-6. PMID: 2985549

Osumi82: Osumi T, Saier MH (1982). "Regulation of lactose permease activity by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system: evidence for direct binding of the glucose-specific enzyme III to the lactose permease." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(5);1457-61. PMID: 7041121

Park06a: Park YH, Lee BR, Seok YJ, Peterkofsky A (2006). "In vitro reconstitution of catabolite repression in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 281(10);6448-54. PMID: 16407219

Pelton91: Pelton JG, Torchia DA, Meadow ND, Wong CY, Roseman S (1991). "1H, 15N, and 13C NMR signal assignments of IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein of Escherichia coli, using three-dimensional triple-resonance techniques." Biochemistry 30(41);10043-57. PMID: 1911770

Pelton92: Pelton JG, Torchia DA, Meadow ND, Roseman S (1992). "Structural comparison of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using three-dimensional NMR techniques." Biochemistry 31(22);5215-24. PMID: 1606145

Pelton93: Pelton JG, Torchia DA, Meadow ND, Roseman S (1993). "Tautomeric states of the active-site histidines of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR techniques." Protein Sci 2(4);543-58. PMID: 8518729

Peterkofsky88: Peterkofsky A (1988). "Redistribution of phosphate pools and the regulation of Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase activity." Arch Biochem Biophys 265(2);227-33. PMID: 2844115

Peterkofsky89: Peterkofsky A, Svenson I, Amin N (1989). "Regulation of Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase activity by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system." FEMS Microbiol Rev 5(1-2);103-8. PMID: 2699242

Postma93: Postma PW, Lengeler JW, Jacobson GR (1993). "Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria." Microbiol Rev 57(3);543-94. PMID: 8246840

Presper89: Presper KA, Wong CY, Liu L, Meadow ND, Roseman S (1989). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphocarrier protein. IIIGlc, a major signal-transducing protein in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(11);4052-5. PMID: 2657735

Reddy98: Reddy P, Kamireddi M (1998). "Modulation of Escherichia coli adenylyl cyclase activity by catalytic-site mutants of protein IIA(Glc) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system." J Bacteriol 180(3);732-6. PMID: 9457881

Reidl91: Reidl J, Boos W (1991). "The malX malY operon of Escherichia coli encodes a novel enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system recognizing glucose and maltose and an enzyme abolishing the endogenous induction of the maltose system." J Bacteriol 173(15);4862-76. PMID: 1856179

Rimmele94: Rimmele M, Boos W (1994). "Trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1994;176(18);5654-64. PMID: 8083158

Saier14: Saier MH, Reddy VS, Tamang DG, Vastermark A (2014). "The transporter classification database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(1);D251-8. PMID: 24225317

Saier76: Saier MH, Roseman S (1976). "Sugar transport. The crr mutation: its effect on repression of enzyme synthesis." J Biol Chem 251(21);6598-605. PMID: 789369

Saier76a: Saier MH, Feucht BU, Hofstadter LJ (1976). "Regulation of carbohydrate uptake and adenylate cyclase activity mediated by the enzymes II of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 251(3);883-92. PMID: 765335

Saier80: Saier MH (1980). "Catalytic activities associated with the enzymes II of the bacterial phosphotransferase system." J Supramol Struct 14(3);281-94. PMID: 7012451

Strom93: Strom AR, Kaasen I (1993). "Trehalose metabolism in Escherichia coli: stress protection and stress regulation of gene expression." Mol Microbiol 1993;8(2);205-10. PMID: 8391102

Sutrina87: Sutrina SL, Waygood EB, Grenier FC, Saier MH (1987). "HPr/HPr-P phosphoryl exchange reaction catalyzed by the mannitol specific enzyme II of the bacterial phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 262(6);2636-41. PMID: 3102473

Takahashi98: Takahashi H, Inada T, Postma P, Aiba H (1998). "CRP down-regulates adenylate cyclase activity by reducing the level of phosphorylated IIA(Glc), the glucose-specific phosphotransferase protein, in Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 259(3);317-26. PMID: 9749675

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wang00: Wang G, Louis JM, Sondej M, Seok YJ, Peterkofsky A, Clore GM (2000). "Solution structure of the phosphoryl transfer complex between the signal transducing proteins HPr and IIA(glucose) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system." EMBO J 19(21);5635-49. PMID: 11060015

Wang00a: Wang G, Peterkofsky A, Clore GM (2000). "A novel membrane anchor function for the N-terminal amphipathic sequence of the signal-transducing protein IIAGlucose of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system." J Biol Chem 275(51);39811-4. PMID: 11044440

Wang03: Wang G, Keifer PA, Peterkofsky A (2003). "Solution structure of the N-terminal amphitropic domain of Escherichia coli glucose-specific enzyme IIA in membrane-mimetic micelles." Protein Sci 12(5);1087-96. PMID: 12717030

Worthylake91: Worthylake D, Meadow ND, Roseman S, Liao DI, Herzberg O, Remington SJ (1991). "Three-dimensional structure of the Escherichia coli phosphocarrier protein IIIglc." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88(23);10382-6. PMID: 1961703


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 22, 2014, BIOCYC14B.