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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter



Gene: dctA Accession Numbers: EG20044 (EcoCyc), b3528, ECK3513

Synonyms: SBP2, DctA DAACS transporter

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
DctA is required for dicarboxylate transport [Lo77]. DctA is a proton motive force-dependent C4-dicarboxylate transporter, responsible for the uptake of fumarate, succinate, and L- and D-malate under aerobic conditions, and also for the uptake of orotate, a pyrmidine precursor [Kay69, Lo72, Janausch02, Reed06, Baker96].

The substrate recognition site of DctA is located on the outer surface of the inner membrane [Lo75, Lo78]. Transport may be mediated by alternate reduction and oxidation of the carrier protein [Rayman72].

DctA and DcuB function as co-sensors with DcuS - the sensor histidine kinase of the two-component system that controls the expression of genes required for C4-dicarboxylate degradation. DcuS requires the transport proteins DctA or DcuB for normal function. DctA interacts specifically with DcuS in vivo [Witan12]. DctA is predicted to contain eight transmembrane helices with the N and C-termini located in the cytoplasm. Residues important for interaction with DcuS are located in α-helix 8a [Witan12].

Transcription of dctA is weakly controlled by the DcuSR two-component system in response to dicarboxylates [Goh05, Janausch04, Davies99, Golby99, Zientz98]. DcuR binds upstream of dctA [AboAmer04]. dctA expression increases during stationary phase [Davies99]. dctA is strongly down-regulated by CRP interacting with Eσ54 and is therefore subject to catabolite repression [Lo72, Wang98h, Gosset04, Hua04, Davies99, Baker96]. dctA is repressed by ArcA under anaerobic conditions [Davies99]. dctA is also repressed by DctR in an atp deletion strain preventing growth on C4-dicarboxylates [Boogerd98]. dctA is transiently induced upon cold shock [Phadtare04].

Mutants defective in dctA were unable to grow on fumarate or malate, showed decreased growth on succinate and were unable to utilize orotate as a pyrimidine source [Kay69, Baker96, Davies99]. These defects could be complemented by the cloned dctA gene [Davies99]. There appears to be another transporter, possibly a monocarboxylate carrier, that is able to import succinate at acidic pH in sufficient amounts for aerobic growth on succinate, but cannot exchange fumarate and succinate [Janausch01]. The DauA protein was characterised by [Karinou13] as a succinate/fumarate/aspartate transporter active in aerobic and acidic environements.

DctA is highly similar to the Rhizobium meliloti dicarboxylate transporter DctA and is a member of the DAACS family of dicarboxylate and amino acid transporters [Reizer94b].

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [3,680,184 <- 3,681,470] (79.32 centisomes)
Length: 1287 bp / 428 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 45.436 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0011527 , CGSC:872 , DIP:DIP-47958N , EchoBASE:EB4140 , EcoGene:EG20044 , EcoliWiki:b3528 , Mint:MINT-1288518 , OU-Microarray:b3528 , PortEco:dctA , PR:PRO_000022410 , Protein Model Portal:P0A830 , RefSeq:NP_417985 , RegulonDB:EG20044 , SMR:P0A830 , String:511145.b3528 , UniProt:P0A830

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001991 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018107 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023954 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11958 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00375 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00173 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00713 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00714

In Paralogous Gene Group: 488 (3 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Instance reactions of [a C4-dicarboxylate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → a C4-dicarboxylate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol]] (no EC#):
i1: L-aspartate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → L-aspartate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i2: fumarate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → fumarate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i3: succinate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → succinate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i4: (R)-malate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → (R)-malate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

i5: (S)-malate[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] → (S)-malate[cytosol] + 2 H+[cytosol] (no EC#)

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006974 - cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Inferred from experiment [Khil02]
GO:0015741 - fumarate transport Inferred from experiment [Davies99, Lo72]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:0070778 - L-aspartate transport Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:0071422 - succinate transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment [Lo72]
GO:0071423 - malate transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:1902600 - hydrogen ion transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0006835 - dicarboxylic acid transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0015138 - fumarate transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Lo72]
GO:0015141 - succinate transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Lo72]
GO:0015183 - L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:0015366 - malate:proton symporter activity Inferred from experiment [Gutowski75]
GO:0015293 - symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a]
GO:0017153 - sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a, DiazMejia09, Zhang07, Daley05, Lo75]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Lo77]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, Lo77]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
regulation type of regulation unknown
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for dctA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Credits:
Revised 25-Sep-2006 by Johnson A , TIGR
Last-Curated ? 03-Nov-2013 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of a C4-dicarboxylate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of malate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of L-aspartate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of orotate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of fumarate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of malate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of succinate (C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter)


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 5 -> 27
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 47 -> 64
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 77 -> 99
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 141 -> 163
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 184 -> 206
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 219 -> 241
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 326 -> 348
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 352 -> 374
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Unit:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3528 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG20044.


References

AboAmer04: Abo-Amer AE, Munn J, Jackson K, Aktas M, Golby P, Kelly DJ, Andrews SC (2004). "DNA interaction and phosphotransfer of the C4-dicarboxylate-responsive DcuS-DcuR two-component regulatory system from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(6);1879-89. PMID: 14996819

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Baker96: Baker KE, Ditullio KP, Neuhard J, Kelln RA (1996). "Utilization of orotate as a pyrimidine source by Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli requires the dicarboxylate transport protein encoded by dctA." J Bacteriol 1996;178(24);7099-105. PMID: 8955389

Boogerd98: Boogerd FC, Boe L, Michelsen O, Jensen PR (1998). "atp Mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency." J Bacteriol 180(22);5855-9. PMID: 9811641

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

Davies99: Davies SJ, Golby P, Omrani D, Broad SA, Harrington VL, Guest JR, Kelly DJ, Andrews SC (1999). "Inactivation and regulation of the aerobic C(4)-dicarboxylate transport (dctA) gene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(18);5624-35. PMID: 10482502

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Goh05: Goh EB, Bledsoe PJ, Chen LL, Gyaneshwar P, Stewart V, Igo MM (2005). "Hierarchical control of anaerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12: the nitrate-responsive NarX-NarL regulatory system represses synthesis of the fumarate-responsive DcuS-DcuR regulatory system." J Bacteriol 187(14);4890-9. PMID: 15995204

Golby99: Golby P, Davies S, Kelly DJ, Guest JR, Andrews SC (1999). "Identification and characterization of a two-component sensor-kinase and response-regulator system (DcuS-DcuR) controlling gene expression in response to C4-dicarboxylates in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(4);1238-48. PMID: 9973351

Gosset04: Gosset G, Zhang Z, Nayyar S, Cuevas WA, Saier MH (2004). "Transcriptome analysis of Crp-dependent catabolite control of gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(11);3516-24. PMID: 15150239

Gutowski75: Gutowski SJ, Rosenberg H (1975). "Succinate uptake and related proton movements in Escherichia coli K12." Biochem J 152(3);647-54. PMID: 5999

Hua04: Hua Q, Yang C, Oshima T, Mori H, Shimizu K (2004). "Analysis of gene expression in Escherichia coli in response to changes of growth-limiting nutrient in chemostat cultures." Appl Environ Microbiol 70(4);2354-66. PMID: 15066832

Janausch01: Janausch IG, Kim OB, Unden G (2001). "DctA- and Dcu-independent transport of succinate in Escherichia coli: contribution of diffusion and of alternative carriers." Arch Microbiol 176(3);224-30. PMID: 11511871

Janausch02: Janausch IG, Zientz E, Tran QH, Kroger A, Unden G (2002). "C4-dicarboxylate carriers and sensors in bacteria." Biochim Biophys Acta 1553(1-2);39-56. PMID: 11803016

Janausch04: Janausch IG, Garcia-Moreno I, Lehnen D, Zeuner Y, Unden G (2004). "Phosphorylation and DNA binding of the regulator DcuR of the fumarate-responsive two-component system DcuSR of Escherichia coli." Microbiology 150(Pt 4);877-83. PMID: 15073297

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Karinou13: Karinou E, Compton EL, Morel M, Javelle A (2013). "The Escherichia coli SLC26 homologue YchM (DauA) is a C(4) -dicarboxylic acid transporter." Mol Microbiol 87(3);623-40. PMID: 23278959

Kay69: Kay WW, Kornberg HL (1969). "Genetic control of the uptake of C(4)-dicarboxylic acids by Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 3(2);93-96. PMID: 11946977

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Lo72: Lo TC, Rayman MK, Sanwal BD (1972). "Transport of succinate in Escherichia coli. I. Biochemical and genetic studies of transport in whole cells." J Biol Chem 247(19);6323-31. PMID: 4346810

Lo75: Lo TC, Sanwal BD (1975). "Membrane bound substrate recognition components of the dicarboxylate transport system in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 63(1);278-85. PMID: 1092298

Lo77: Lo TC (1977). "The molecular mechanism of dicarboxylic acid transport in Escherichia coli K 12." J Supramol Struct 7(3-4);463-80. PMID: 357845

Lo78: Lo TC, Bewick MA (1978). "The molecular mechanisms of dicarboxylic acid transport in Escherichia coli K12. The role and orientation of the two membrane-bound dicarboxylate binding proteins." J Biol Chem 253(21);7826-31. PMID: 359555

Phadtare04: Phadtare S, Inouye M (2004). "Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the cold shock response in wild-type and cold-sensitive, quadruple-csp-deletion strains of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(20);7007-14. PMID: 15466053

Rayman72: Rayman MK, Lo TC, Sanwal BD (1972). "Transport of succinate in Escherichia coli. II. Characteristics of uptake and energy coupling with transport in membrane preparations." J Biol Chem 247(19);6332-9. PMID: 4568614

Reed06: Reed JL, Patel TR, Chen KH, Joyce AR, Applebee MK, Herring CD, Bui OT, Knight EM, Fong SS, Palsson BO (2006). "Systems approach to refining genome annotation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(46);17480-4. PMID: 17088549

Reizer94b: Reizer J, Reizer A, Saier MH (1994). "A functional superfamily of sodium/solute symporters." Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1197(2);133-66. PMID: 8031825

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wang98h: Wang YP, Kolb A, Buck M, Wen J, O'Gara F, Buc H (1998). "CRP interacts with promoter-bound sigma54 RNA polymerase and blocks transcriptional activation of the dctA promoter." EMBO J 17(3);786-96. PMID: 9451003

Witan12: Witan J, Bauer J, Wittig I, Steinmetz PA, Erker W, Unden G (2012). "Interaction of the Escherichia coli transporter DctA with the sensor kinase DcuS: presence of functional DctA/DcuS sensor units." Mol Microbiol 85(5);846-61. PMID: 22780562

Zhang07: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

Zientz98: Zientz E, Bongaerts J, Unden G (1998). "Fumarate regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli by the DcuSR (dcuSR genes) two-component regulatory system." J Bacteriol 1998;180(20);5421-5. PMID: 9765574

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Khristiuk76: Khristiuk VM, Vedrova IN (1976). "[Dispensary method of serving children with several skin diseases]." Vopr Okhr Materin Det 21(2);83-5. PMID: 997335

Raivio13: Raivio TL, Leblanc SK, Price NL (2013). "The Escherichia coli Cpx envelope stress response regulates genes of diverse function that impact antibiotic resistance and membrane integrity." J Bacteriol 195(12);2755-67. PMID: 23564175


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Fri Nov 28, 2014, biocyc12.