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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: dicarboxylate transporter DcuC



Gene: dcuC Accession Numbers: G6347 (EcoCyc), b0621, ECK0614

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
DcuC is the prototype of the DcuC family of dicarboxylate uptake transporters. The DcuC transporter is one of three transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of C4-dicarboxylates such as fumarate under anaerobic conditions. A knockout mutant of dcuC in a dcuA dcuB double mutant lost the ability to grow by fumarate respiration and was unable to mediate fumarate/succinate exchange [Zientz96]. Whole cell experiments using dcuA-C indicated that DcuC can mediate both fumarate/succinate exchange and fumarate/proton symport [Zientz96]. Transport assays have shown exchange is favored over uptake for DcuA, DcuB, and DcuC [Zientz96]. Exchange has been determined to be electroneutral, while uptake and efflux require proton symport [Engel94].

Expression of dcuC was high under anaerobic growth, but was repressed under aerobic growth [Zientz99]. FNR is primarily responsible for dcuC induction under anaerobic growth with some contribution from ArcA [Zientz99]. Since growth in glucose does not repress dcuC it is believed DcuC acts primarily in succinate efflux during glucose fermentation [Zientz99]. Consistent with this, a dcuC deletion mutant has increased uptake and exchange of C4-dicarboxylates through DcuA and DcuB suggesting the activity of DcuC counteracts the activities of DcuA and DcuB [Zientz99]. Also, the low rates of transport of DcuC are inadequate for normal levels of fumarate respiration, but are adequate for succinate export during glucose fermentation [Zientz96, Zientz99]. However, there appears to be another transporter, possibly a monocarboxylate carrier, that is able to export succinate at acidic pH in sufficient amounts such that none of the other C4-dicarboxylate carriers are required for glucose fermentation [Janausch01].

Citations: [Engel92a]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [653,806 <- 655,191] (14.09 centisomes)
Length: 1386 bp / 461 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 48.412 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0002133 , EchoBASE:EB3315 , EcoGene:EG13545 , EcoliWiki:b0621 , OU-Microarray:b0621 , PortEco:dcuC , PR:PRO_000022414 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABP3 , RefSeq:NP_415154 , RegulonDB:G6347 , String:511145.b0621 , UniProt:P0ABP3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004669 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018385 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03606

In Paralogous Gene Group: 166 (7 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015740 - C4-dicarboxylate transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Zientz96]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0015556 - C4-dicarboxylate transmembrane transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09, Zhang07a, Daley05]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for dcuC knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Enzymatic reaction of: transport of a C-4 dicarboxylate (dicarboxylate transporter DcuC)


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 2 -> 22
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 26 -> 46
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 79 -> 99
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 116 -> 136
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 137 -> 157
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 164 -> 184
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 199 -> 219
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 240 -> 260
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 267 -> 287
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 313 -> 333
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 343 -> 363
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 436 -> 456
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Unit:

Notes:

History:
Markus Krummenacker on Tue Oct 14, 1997:
Gene object created from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry.


References

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Engel92a: Engel P, Kramer R, Unden G (1992). "Anaerobic fumarate transport in Escherichia coli by an fnr-dependent dicarboxylate uptake system which is different from the aerobic dicarboxylate uptake system." J Bacteriol 174(17);5533-9. PMID: 1512189

Engel94: Engel P, Kramer R, Unden G (1994). "Transport of C4-dicarboxylates by anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. Energetics and mechanism of exchange, uptake and efflux." Eur J Biochem 222(2);605-14. PMID: 8020497

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Janausch01: Janausch IG, Kim OB, Unden G (2001). "DctA- and Dcu-independent transport of succinate in Escherichia coli: contribution of diffusion and of alternative carriers." Arch Microbiol 176(3);224-30. PMID: 11511871

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Zhang07a: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

Zientz96: Zientz E, Six S, Unden G (1996). "Identification of a third secondary carrier (DcuC) for anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transport in Escherichia coli: roles of the three Dcu carriers in uptake and exchange." J Bacteriol 1996;178(24);7241-7. PMID: 8955408

Zientz99: Zientz E, Janausch IG, Six S, Unden G (1999). "Functioning of DcuC as the C4-dicarboxylate carrier during glucose fermentation by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(12);3716-20. PMID: 10368146


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Nov 20, 2014, biocyc14.