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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: choline:H+ symporter



Gene: betT Accession Numbers: EG10112 (EcoCyc), b0314, ECK0312

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
BetT is a proton-motive-force-driven choline transporter that belongs to the Betaine Carnitine Choline Transport (BCCT) family of proteins. Deletion mutants of betT displayed essentially no choline uptake activity, but could be complemented with a betT-encoding plasmid, restoring rapid choline uptake [Lamark91]. Choline uptake is completely inhibited by the protonophore carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone, suggesting that choline transport by BetT is driven by the proton-motive force [Lamark91]. Choline is used to synthesize glycine betaine, which is used by E. coli to overcome growth inhibition caused by osmotic stress [Andresen88]. The betTIAB genes are expressed only under aerobic conditions, and are induced by osmotic stress [Lamark91]. Analysis of betT-lacZ fusions showed that betT transcription increased 7-10 fold in response to increases in medium osmolarity. The presence of choline further increases this response [Eshoo88].

betT mRNA decay is controlled by RNase III in response to osmotic stress. betT mRNA contains two tandem RNase III cleavage sites - both of which are required for efficient betT mRNA degradation [Sim14].

BetT is predicted to have 10-12 membrane spanning regions; it also contains a long hydrophilic C-terminal domain of approximately 200 amino acid residues [Lamark91].

betT: [Andresen88]

Gene Citations: [Lamark96, Rkenes96]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [328,687 -> 330,720] (7.08 centisomes)
Length: 2034 bp / 677 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 75.842 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0001080 , CGSC:18505 , EchoBASE:EB0110 , EcoGene:EG10112 , EcoliWiki:b0314 , OU-Microarray:b0314 , PortEco:betT , PR:PRO_000022210 , Pride:P0ABC9 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABC9 , RefSeq:NP_414848 , RegulonDB:EG10112 , SMR:P0ABC9 , String:511145.b0314 , UniProt:P0ABC9

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000060 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018093 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02028 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01303

In Paralogous Gene Group: 96 (2 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006974 - cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Inferred from experiment [Khil02]
GO:0015871 - choline transport Inferred from experiment [Lamark91]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0006950 - response to stress Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0019285 - glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12]
Molecular Function: GO:0015220 - choline transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Lamark91]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09, Daley05]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [Lamark91]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism central intermediary metabolism betaine biosynthesis
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for betT knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]

Enzymatic reaction of: choline:H+ symporter

Synonyms: Transport of choline


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 15 -> 35
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 54 -> 74
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 94 -> 114
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 144 -> 164
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 196 -> 216
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 233 -> 253
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 265 -> 285
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 319 -> 339
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 350 -> 370
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 412 -> 432
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 452 -> 472
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 477 -> 497
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b0314 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10112; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Andresen88: Andresen PA, Kaasen I, Styrvold OB, Boulnois G, Strom AR (1988). "Molecular cloning, physical mapping and expression of the bet genes governing the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli." J Gen Microbiol 1988;134 ( Pt 6);1737-46. PMID: 3065456

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eshoo88: Eshoo MW (1988). "lac fusion analysis of the bet genes of Escherichia coli: regulation by osmolarity, temperature, oxygen, choline, and glycine betaine." J Bacteriol 1988;170(11);5208-15. PMID: 3141381

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Lamark91: Lamark T, Kaasen I, Eshoo MW, Falkenberg P, McDougall J, Strom AR (1991). "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1991;5(5);1049-64. PMID: 1956285

Lamark96: Lamark T, Rokenes TP, McDougall J, Strom AR (1996). "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress." J Bacteriol 1996;178(6);1655-62. PMID: 8626294

Rkenes96: Rkenes TP, Lamark T, Strom AR (1996). "DNA-binding properties of the BetI repressor protein of Escherichia coli: the inducer choline stimulates BetI-DNA complex formation." J Bacteriol 1996;178(6);1663-70. PMID: 8626295

Sim14: Sim M, Lim B, Sim SH, Kim D, Jung E, Lee Y, Lee K (2014). "Two Tandem RNase III Cleavage Sites Determine betT mRNA Stability in Response to Osmotic Stress in Escherichia coli." PLoS One 9(6);e100520. PMID: 24956275

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Lynch96: Lynch AS, Lin EC (1996). "Transcriptional control mediated by the ArcA two-component response regulator protein of Escherichia coli: characterization of DNA binding at target promoters." J Bacteriol 1996;178(21);6238-49. PMID: 8892825

Son11: Son YJ, Phue JN, Trinh LB, Lee SJ, Shiloach J (2011). "The role of Cra in regulating acetate excretion and osmotic tolerance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli B at high density growth." Microb Cell Fact 10;52. PMID: 21718532


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Fri Nov 28, 2014, biocyc13.