Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system - membrane fusion protein

Gene: acrE Accession Numbers: EG10266 (EcoCyc), b3265, ECK3252

Synonyms: envC

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for acrE

Component of: AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system (summary available)

AcrE shares 65% amino acid identity with the periplasmic lipoprotein AcrA of the AcrAB multidrug efflux system [Klein91, Ma93]. AcrE functions in Escherichia coli as part of a drug efflux system with the AcrF RND type permease and the TolC outer membrane protein [Kobayashi01].

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [3,411,886 -> 3,413,043] (73.54 centisomes, 265°)
Length: 1158 bp / 385 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 41.318 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 39 kD (experimental) [Seiffer93 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010722 , CGSC:813 , EchoBASE:EB0262 , EcoGene:EG10266 , EcoliWiki:b3265 , ModBase:P24180 , OU-Microarray:b3265 , PortEco:acrE , Pride:P24180 , Protein Model Portal:P24180 , RefSeq:NP_417731 , RegulonDB:EG10266 , SMR:P24180 , String:511145.b3265 , Swiss-Model:P24180 , UniProt:P24180

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006143 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00529 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51257

In Paralogous Gene Group: 132 (13 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for acrE

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0042493 - response to drug Inferred by computational analysis [Ma93]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0031226 - intrinsic component of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Ma93]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Seiffer93]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]


Essentiality data for acrE knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Subunit of: AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system

Subunit composition of AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system = [AcrE][AcrF]3[(TolC)3]
         AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system - membrane fusion protein = AcrE (summary available)
         AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system - permease subunit = AcrF (summary available)
         TolC outer membrane channel = (TolC)3 (extended summary available)
                 TolC monomer = TolC

The AcrEF proteins share high amino acid sequence identity with the AcrAB multidrug efflux proteins of Escherichia coli K-12 [Klein91, Ma93]. Plasmid overexpression of acrEF suppresses the hyper-drug sensitivity of acrAB deletion mutants [KawamuraSato99] however the AcrEF system is not thought to play a large role in drug resistance as acrEF deletion mutants do not display a drug sensitive phenotype. The level of expression of acrEF is thought to be low under laboratory conditions [Nikaido96]. Complementation studies have shown that plasmid-expressed acrF is able to complement an acrB deletion mutation. AcrEF plasmid complementation is dependent on TolC, strongly suggesting that AcrEF, like AcrAB, forms a complex with the outer membrane protein [Kobayashi01].

Enzymatic reaction of: multidrug efflux

Transport reaction diagram for multidrug efflux

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of AcrEF-TolC multidrug efflux system - membrane fusion protein with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 23
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Lipid-Binding-Site 24
UniProt: N-palmitoyl cysteine; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Chain 24 -> 385
UniProt: Acriflavine resistance protein E;
Sequence-Conflict 191 -> 212
[Klein91, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2);
Sequence-Conflict 313 -> 314
[Klein91, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2);

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


1/26/1998 (pkarp) Merged genes G7979/acrE and EG10266/acrE


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

KawamuraSato99: Kawamura-Sato K, Shibayama K, Horii T, Iimuma Y, Arakawa Y, Ohta M (1999). "Role of multiple efflux pumps in Escherichia coli in indole expulsion." FEMS Microbiol Lett 179(2);345-52. PMID: 10518736

Klein91: Klein JR, Henrich B, Plapp R (1991). "Molecular analysis and nucleotide sequence of the envCD operon of Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 1991;230(1-2);230-40. PMID: 1720861

Kobayashi01: Kobayashi K, Tsukagoshi N, Aono R (2001). "Suppression of hypersensitivity of Escherichia coli acrB mutant to organic solvents by integrational activation of the acrEF operon with the IS1 or IS2 element." J Bacteriol 183(8);2646-53. PMID: 11274125

Ma93: Ma D, Cook DN, Alberti M, Pon NG, Nikaido H, Hearst JE (1993). "Molecular cloning and characterization of acrA and acrE genes of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(19);6299-313. PMID: 8407802

Nikaido96: Nikaido H (1996). "Multidrug efflux pumps of gram-negative bacteria." J Bacteriol 178(20);5853-9. PMID: 8830678

Seiffer93: Seiffer D, Klein JR, Plapp R (1993). "EnvC, a new lipoprotein of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 107(2-3);175-8. PMID: 8472900

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10b: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Bairoch05: Bairoch A, Apweiler R, Wu CH, Barker WC, Boeckmann B, Ferro S, Gasteiger E, Huang H, Lopez R, Magrane M, Martin MJ, Natale DA, O'Donovan C, Redaschi N, Yeh LS (2005). "The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt)." Nucleic Acids Res 33(Database issue);D154-9. PMID: 15608167

Hirakawa08: Hirakawa H, Takumi-Kobayashi A, Theisen U, Hirata T, Nishino K, Yamaguchi A (2008). "AcrS/EnvR Represses the Expression of the acrAB Multidrug Efflux Genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 190(18):6276-9. PMID: 18567659

Huerta03: Huerta AM, Collado-Vides J (2003). "Sigma70 promoters in Escherichia coli: specific transcription in dense regions of overlapping promoter-like signals." J Mol Biol 333(2);261-78. PMID: 14529615

Nishino04: Nishino K, Yamaguchi A (2004). "Role of histone-like protein H-NS in multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(5);1423-9. PMID: 14973023

Salmon03: Salmon K, Hung SP, Mekjian K, Baldi P, Hatfield GW, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12. The effects of oxygen availability and FNR." J Biol Chem 278(32);29837-55. PMID: 12754220

Viveiros07: Viveiros M, Dupont M, Rodrigues L, Couto I, Davin-Regli A, Martins M, Pages JM, Amaral L (2007). "Antibiotic stress, genetic response and altered permeability of E. coli." PLoS ONE 2;e365. PMID: 17426813

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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