Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: Lit, cell death peptidase; phage exclusion; e14 prophage

Gene: lit Accession Numbers: EG10535 (EcoCyc), b1139, ECK1125

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for lit

The lit gene is part of the defective prophage element e14 [Greener80, Mehta04].

A mutation in the putative promoter region of the lit gene (termed litCon) causes constitutive expression of Lit and blocks late gene expression during T4 infection, and thus causes phage exclusion [Kao87]. The inhibitory effect of Lit on T4 replication is dependent on the gol site located within gene 23, which encodes the major capsid protein of T4 [Champness84]. Translation of the gol region in the presence of Lit protein causes global inhibition of translation [Bergsland90]. Both in vivo [Yu94] and in an in vitro system consisting of purified Lit protein, translation elongation factor TU (EF-Tu), and a short synthetic peptide derived from the gol region, interaction between the Lit protein and the gol product leads to the cleavage of EF-Tu [Georgiou98]. The substrate for Lit appears to be a specific complex between the Gol peptide and domains II and III of EF-Tu [Bingham00]. Site-specific mutagenesis of residues within the metallopeptidase motif has defined essential elements for the catalytic activity of Lit [Copeland04].

The litCon phenotype can be supressed by elevated levels of Rho or GroEL proteins [Linder94]. Binding of the emerging Gol peptide to EF-Tu may cause translation to pause and enable the GroEL chaperonin to bind to the polypeptide, regulating synthesis of functional capsid protein [Snyder03].

Lit - "late inhibitor of T4" [Cooley79].

Citations: [Gottesman98]

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Map Position: [1,197,918 -> 1,198,811] (25.82 centisomes, 93°)
Length: 894 bp / 297 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 33.762 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 34 kD (experimental) [Kao88 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0003834 , CGSC:554 , EchoBASE:EB0530 , EcoGene:EG10535 , EcoliWiki:b1139 , OU-Microarray:b1139 , PortEco:lit , Pride:P11072 , Protein Model Portal:P11072 , RefSeq:NP_415657 , RegulonDB:EG10535 , String:511145.b1139 , UniProt:P11072

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR019504 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF10463

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006448 - regulation of translational elongation Inferred from experiment [Georgiou98]
GO:0006508 - proteolysis Inferred from experiment [Georgiou98]
Molecular Function: GO:0008233 - peptidase activity Inferred from experiment [Georgiou98]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, Kao88]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: extrachromosomal prophage genes and phage related functions
regulation type of regulation posttranscriptional proteases, cleavage of compounds

Essentiality data for lit knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of Lit, cell death peptidase; phage exclusion; e14 prophage with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 61 -> 82
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Sequence-Conflict 121 -> 135
[Kao88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24074);
Transmembrane-Region 149 -> 178
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b1139 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10535; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bergsland90: Bergsland KJ, Kao C, Yu YT, Gulati R, Snyder L (1990). "A site in the T4 bacteriophage major head protein gene that can promote the inhibition of all translation in Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 213(3);477-94. PMID: 2191141

Bingham00: Bingham R, Ekunwe SI, Falk S, Snyder L, Kleanthous C (2000). "The major head protein of bacteriophage T4 binds specifically to elongation factor Tu." J Biol Chem 275(30);23219-26. PMID: 10801848

Champness84: Champness WC, Snyder L (1984). "Bacteriophage T4 gol site: sequence analysis and effects of the site on plasmid transformation." J Virol 50(2);555-62. PMID: 6323755

Cooley79: Cooley W, Sirotkin K, Green R, Synder L (1979). "A new gene of Escherichia coli K-12 whose product participates in T4 bacteriophage late gene expression: interaction of lit with the T4-induced polynucleotide 5'-kinase 3'-phosphatase." J Bacteriol 140(1);83-91. PMID: 227837

Copeland04: Copeland NA, Bingham R, Georgiou T, Cooper P, Kleanthous C (2004). "Identification of essential residues within Lit, a cell death peptidase of Escherichia coli K-12." Biochemistry 43(24);7948-53. PMID: 15196039

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Georgiou98: Georgiou T, Yu YN, Ekunwe S, Buttner MJ, Zuurmond A, Kraal B, Kleanthous C, Snyder L (1998). "Specific peptide-activated proteolytic cleavage of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(6);2891-5. PMID: 9501186

Gottesman98: Gottesman S (1998). "Protecting the neighborhood: extreme measures." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(6);2731-2. PMID: 9501157

Greener80: Greener A, Hill CW (1980). "Identification of a novel genetic element in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 144(1);312-21. PMID: 6998954

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kao87: Kao C, Gumbs E, Snyder L (1987). "Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli lit gene, which blocks bacteriophage T4 late gene expression." J Bacteriol 169(3);1232-8. PMID: 3546267

Kao88: Kao C, Snyder L (1988). "The lit gene product which blocks bacteriophage T4 late gene expression is a membrane protein encoded by a cryptic DNA element, e14." J Bacteriol 170(5);2056-62. PMID: 2452152

Linder94: Linder CH, Carlson K, Albertioni F, S?derstr?m J, P?hlson C (1994). "A late exclusion of bacteriophage T4 can be suppressed by Escherichia coli GroEL or Rho." Genetics 137(3);613-25. PMID: 7916307

Mehta04: Mehta P, Casjens S, Krishnaswamy S (2004). "Analysis of the lambdoid prophage element e14 in the E. coli K-12 genome." BMC Microbiol 4(1);4. PMID: 14733619

Snyder03: Snyder L, Blight S, Auchtung J (2003). "Regulation of translation of the head protein of T4 bacteriophage by specific binding of EF-Tu to a leader sequence." J Mol Biol 334(3);349-61. PMID: 14623179

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Yu94: Yu YT, Snyder L (1994). "Translation elongation factor Tu cleaved by a phage-exclusion system." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(2);802-6. PMID: 8290603

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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