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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter



Gene: melB Accession Numbers: EG10578 (EcoCyc), b4120, ECK4113

Synonyms: mel-4, MelB GPH transporter

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
MelB is a melibiose-cation cotransport protein belonging to the Glycoside-Pentoside-Hexuronide:Cation Symporter Family (GPH) [Reizer94a]. Proteins in the GPH family facilitate sugar-cation symport [Yazyu85]. MelB has been purified, solubilized and reconstituted into liposomes and demonstrated to mediate melibiose symport with sodium, lithium, or proton as the coupling ion [Hanatani84, Roepe90, Bassilana87]. The effects of sodium ion, lithium ion, and proton on the sugar binding constants of MelB were studied in de-energized membrane vesicles incubated in media containing various concentrations of the co-transported cations [Bassilana87]. It was observed that, in a similar fashion, sodium ions and lithium ions activate sugar binding by selectively increasing the permease affinity for the co-transported sugar. This suggests that the two monovalent cations have comparable activation strengths [Bassilana87]. Hydropathy analysis, proteolytic digestion, and PhoA fusions suggest a 12 transmembrane segment topology, with the N and C termini located on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane [Hastings98, Pourcher96, Gwizdek97]. The transport activity of MelB is associated with charge translocation [Ganea09].

The susbtrate specificity of MelB was studied in a lactose transport negative strain of E.coli possessing an inducible melibiose transport system. α-galactopyranosides (methyl α-D-galactopyranoside, raffinose and p-nitrophenyl-α-galactoside) are cotransported with either H+ or Na+ while β-galactopyranosides (lactulose, lactose, methyl β-D-galactopyranside and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside) are cotransported with Na+. The monosaccharides D-fucose, L-arabinose and D-galactosamine are cotransported with Na+ while D-galactose can be cotransported with either H+ or Na+ [Wilson87].

Two-dimensional crystallization of MelB permease was achieved, and a projection map at 8.0 Å resolution was derived by electron crystallography, suggesting an asymmetric protein unit hosting 12 potential transmembrane alpha -helices that are distributed in two domains lining a central and curve-shaped cleft. [Hacksell02].

The melibiose transport system is temperature sensitive in E.coli K-12, it is active at 30oC but not at 37 oC [PRESTIDGE65].

Reviewed in [Pourcher90a, Leblanc93, Wilson01a].

Citations: [Yousef09, Pourcher95, Zani93, Pourcher93, Pourcher91, Zani94, Tsuchiya85, MeyerLipp04, MeyerLipp06, Leon05, Granell10, AbdelDayem03, Ganea01, GarciaCelma08, Purhonen05]

Gene Citations: [Bourgerie97]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [4,341,392 -> 4,342,813] (93.57 centisomes)
Length: 1422 bp / 473 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 52.636 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 52 kD (experimental) [Yazyu84 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0013495 , CGSC:521 , DIP:DIP-10180N , EchoBASE:EB0573 , EcoGene:EG10578 , EcoliWiki:b4120 , Mint:MINT-1320140 , OU-Microarray:b4120 , PortEco:melB , PR:PRO_000023198 , Protein Model Portal:P02921 , RefSeq:NP_418544 , RegulonDB:EG10578 , String:511145.b4120 , UniProt:P02921

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001927 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016196 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018043 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00872

In Paralogous Gene Group: 83 (6 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015765 - methylgalactoside transport Inferred from experiment [Wilson87]
GO:0015769 - melibiose transport Inferred from experiment [Hanatani84]
GO:0035725 - sodium ion transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment [Pourcher95]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006814 - sodium ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0034219 - carbohydrate transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [Reizer94a]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0098655 - cation transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [Reizer94a]
Molecular Function: GO:0015487 - melibiose:monovalent cation symporter activity Inferred from experiment [Roepe90, Pourcher95]
GO:0015592 - methylgalactoside transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Wilson87]
GO:0043887 - melibiose:sodium symporter activity Inferred from experiment [Pourcher95]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015293 - symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015486 - glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide:cation symporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [Reizer94a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09, Daley05]
GO:0005887 - integral component of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Roepe90]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for melB knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 12-Jun-2012 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter


Enzymatic reaction of: melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter

Alternative Products for melibiose: raffinose [Wilson87 ] , α-lactose [Wilson87 ] , lactulose [Wilson87 ] , o-nitrophenyl-β-galactoside [Wilson87 ] , L-arabinose [Wilson87 ] , D-fucose [Wilson87 ] , D-galactose [Wilson87 ]


Enzymatic reaction of: methyl-α-D-galactpyranoside transport (melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: methyl-α-D-galactpyranoside transport (melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter)


Enzymatic reaction of: melibiose:H+/Na+/Li+ symporter

Synonyms: Transport of Melibiose

Alternative Products for melibiose: raffinose [Wilson87 ] , D-galactose [Wilson87 ]


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Pourcher95, UniProt12]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 473
[UniProt11a]
UniProt: Melibiose carrier protein.
Transmembrane-Region 20 -> 40
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 43 -> 63
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Mutagenesis-Variant 59
[Pourcher91, UniProt12]
Alternate sequence: D → C; UniProt: Loses ability to catalyze Na(+) or H(+)-coupled melibiose transport against a concentration gradient.
Transmembrane-Region 81 -> 101
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 109 -> 129
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 154 -> 174
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 187 -> 207
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 236 -> 256
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 270 -> 290
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 300 -> 320
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 329 -> 349
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 382 -> 402
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;
Transmembrane-Region 411 -> 431
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: probable;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
Ingrid Keseler on Fri Oct 7, 2011:
Gene start position adjusted based on computational analysis by K. Rudd and experimental evidence in [Pourcher95 ].
10/20/97 Gene b4120 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10578; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

AbdelDayem03: Abdel-Dayem M, Basquin C, Pourcher T, Cordat E, Leblanc G (2003). "Cytoplasmic loop connecting helices IV and V of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli is involved in the process of Na+-coupled sugar translocation." J Biol Chem 278(3);1518-24. PMID: 12421811

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bassilana87: Bassilana M, Pourcher T, Leblanc G (1987). "Facilitated diffusion properties of melibiose permease in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles. Release of co-substrates is rate limiting for permease cycling." J Biol Chem 262(35);16865-70. PMID: 3316227

Bourgerie97: Bourgerie SJ, Michan CM, Thomas MS, Busby SJ, Hyde EI (1997). "DNA binding and DNA bending by the MelR transcription activator protein from Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 1997;25(9);1685-93. PMID: 9108148

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Ganea01: Ganea C, Pourcher T, Leblanc G, Fendler K (2001). "Evidence for intraprotein charge transfer during the transport activity of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 40(45);13744-52. PMID: 11695924

Ganea09: Ganea C, Fendler K (2009). "Bacterial transporters: Charge translocation and mechanism." Biochim Biophys Acta 1787(6);706-13. PMID: 19366604

GarciaCelma08: Garcia-Celma JJ, Dueck B, Stein M, Schlueter M, Meyer-Lipp K, Leblanc G, Fendler K (2008). "Rapid activation of the melibiose permease MelB immobilized on a solid-supported membrane." Langmuir 24(15);8119-26. PMID: 18572928

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Granell10: Granell M, Leon X, Leblanc G, Padros E, Lorenz-Fonfria VA (2010). "Structural insights into the activation mechanism of melibiose permease by sodium binding." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(51);22078-83. PMID: 21135207

Gwizdek97: Gwizdek C, Leblanc G, Bassilana M (1997). "Proteolytic mapping and substrate protection of the Escherichia coli melibiose permease." Biochemistry 36(28);8522-9. PMID: 9214297

Hacksell02: Hacksell I, Rigaud JL, Purhonen P, Pourcher T, Hebert H, Leblanc G (2002). "Projection structure at 8 A resolution of the melibiose permease, an Na-sugar co-transporter from Escherichia coli." EMBO J 21(14);3569-74. PMID: 12110569

Hanatani84: Hanatani M, Yazyu H, Shiota-Niiya S, Moriyama Y, Kanazawa H, Futai M, Tsuchiya T (1984). "Physical and genetic characterization of the melibiose operon and identification of the gene products in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1984;259(3);1807-12. PMID: 6319412

Hastings98: Hastings Wilson T, Wilson DM (1998). "Evidence for a close association between helix IV and helix XI in the melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1998;1374(1-2);77-82. PMID: 9814854

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Leblanc93: Leblanc G, Pourcher T, Zani ML (1993). "The melibiose permease of Escherichia coli: importance of the NH2-terminal domains for cation recognition by the Na+/sugar cotransporter." Soc Gen Physiol Ser 48;213-27. PMID: 8099233

Leon05: Leon X, Lorenz-Fonfria VA, Lemonnier R, Leblanc G, Padros E (2005). "Substrate-induced conformational changes of melibiose permease from Escherichia coli studied by infrared difference spectroscopy." Biochemistry 44(9);3506-14. PMID: 15736960

MeyerLipp04: Meyer-Lipp K, Ganea C, Pourcher T, Leblanc G, Fendler K (2004). "Sugar binding induced charge translocation in the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 43(39);12606-13. PMID: 15449950

MeyerLipp06: Meyer-Lipp K, Sery N, Ganea C, Basquin C, Fendler K, Leblanc G (2006). "The inner interhelix loop 4-5 of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli takes part in conformational changes after sugar binding." J Biol Chem 281(36);25882-92. PMID: 16822867

Pourcher90a: Pourcher T, Bassilana M, Sarkar HK, Kaback HR, Leblanc G (1990). "The melibiose/Na+ symporter of Escherichia coli: kinetic and molecular properties." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 326(1236);411-23. PMID: 1970646

Pourcher91: Pourcher T, Deckert M, Bassilana M, Leblanc G (1991). "Melibiose permease of Escherichia coli: mutation of aspartic acid 55 in putative helix II abolishes activation of sugar binding by Na+ ions." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 178(3);1176-81. PMID: 1872836

Pourcher93: Pourcher T, Zani ML, Leblanc G (1993). "Mutagenesis of acidic residues in putative membrane-spanning segments of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli. I. Effect on Na(+)-dependent transport and binding properties." J Biol Chem 268(5);3209-15. PMID: 8428997

Pourcher95: Pourcher T, Leclercq S, Brandolin G, Leblanc G (1995). "Melibiose permease of Escherichia coli: large scale purification and evidence that H+, Na+, and Li+ sugar symport is catalyzed by a single polypeptide." Biochemistry 34(13);4412-20. PMID: 7703254

Pourcher96: Pourcher T, Bibi E, Kaback HR, Leblanc G (1996). "Membrane topology of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli studied by melB-phoA fusion analysis." Biochemistry 35(13);4161-8. PMID: 8672452

PRESTIDGE65: PRESTIDGE LS, PARDEE AB (1965). "A SECOND PERMEASE FOR METHYL-THIO-BETA-D-GALACTOSIDE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI." Biochim Biophys Acta 100;591-3. PMID: 14347955

Purhonen05: Purhonen P, Lundback AK, Lemonnier R, Leblanc G, Hebert H (2005). "Three-dimensional structure of the sugar symporter melibiose permease from cryo-electron microscopy." J Struct Biol 152(1);76-83. PMID: 16139519

Reizer94a: Reizer J, Reizer A, Saier MH (1994). "A functional superfamily of sodium/solute symporters." Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1197(2);133-66. PMID: 8031825

Roepe90: Roepe PD, Kaback HR (1990). "Isolation and functional reconstitution of soluble melibiose permease from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1990;29(10);2572-7. PMID: 2185831

Tsuchiya78: Tsuchiya T, Wilson TH (1978). "Cation-sugar cotransport in the melibiose transport system of Escherichia coli." Membr Biochem 2(1);63-79. PMID: 45782

Tsuchiya85: Tsuchiya T, Wilson DM, Wilson TH (1985). "Melibiose-cation cotransport system of Escherichia coli." Ann N Y Acad Sci 456;342-9. PMID: 3004296

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-11 released on 2011-11-22 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt12: UniProt Consortium (2012). "UniProt version 2012-02 released on 2012-02-29 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wilson01a: Wilson TH, Ding PZ (2001). "Sodium-substrate cotransport in bacteria." Biochim Biophys Acta 1505(1);121-30. PMID: 11248194

Wilson87: Wilson DM, Wilson TH (1987). "Cation specificity for sugar substrates of the melibiose carrier in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 904(2);191-200. PMID: 3311166

Yazyu84: Yazyu H, Shiota-Niiya S, Shimamoto T, Kanazawa H, Futai M, Tsuchiya T (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of the melB gene and characteristics of deduced amino acid sequence of the melibiose carrier in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 259(7);4320-6. PMID: 6323466

Yazyu85: Yazyu H, Shiota S, Futai M, Tsuchiya T (1985). "Alteration in cation specificity of the melibiose transport carrier of Escherichia coli due to replacement of proline 122 with serine." J Bacteriol 1985;162(3);933-7. PMID: 2987195

Yousef09: Yousef MS, Guan L (2009). "A 3D structure model of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli represents a distinctive fold for Na+ symporters." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(36);15291-6. PMID: 19706416

Zani93: Zani ML, Pourcher T, Leblanc G (1993). "Mutagenesis of acidic residues in putative membrane-spanning segments of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli. II. Effect on cationic selectivity and coupling properties." J Biol Chem 268(5);3216-21. PMID: 8428998

Zani94: Zani ML, Pourcher T, Leblanc G (1994). "Mutation of polar and charged residues in the hydrophobic NH2-terminal domains of the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 269(40);24883-9. PMID: 7929169

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Belyaeva00: Belyaeva TA, Wade JT, Webster CL, Howard VJ, Thomas MS, Hyde EI, Busby SJ (2000). "Transcription activation at the Escherichia coli melAB promoter: the role of MelR and the cyclic AMP receptor protein." Mol Microbiol 36(1);211-22. PMID: 10760178

Caswell92a: Caswell R, Webster C, Busby S (1992). "Studies on the binding of the Escherichia coli MelR transcription activator protein to operator sequences at the MelAB promoter." Biochem J 287 ( Pt 2);501-8. PMID: 1445208

Grainger03: Grainger DC, Belyaeva TA, Lee DJ, Hyde EI, Busby SJ (2003). "Binding of the Escherichia coli MelR protein to the melAB promoter: orientation of MelR subunits and investigation of MelR-DNA contacts." Mol Microbiol 48(2);335-48. PMID: 12675795

Howard02: Howard VJ, Belyaeva TA, Busby SJ, Hyde EI (2002). "DNA binding of the transcription activator protein MelR from Escherichia coli and its C-terminal domain." Nucleic Acids Res 30(12);2692-700. PMID: 12060687

Kahramanoglou06: Kahramanoglou C, Webster CL, El-Robh MS, Belyaeva TA, Busby SJ (2006). "Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli melR gene suggests a two-state concerted model to explain transcriptional activation and repression in the melibiose operon." J Bacteriol 188(9);3199-207. PMID: 16621812

Keen96: Keen J, Williams J, Busby S (1996). "Location of essential sequence elements at the Escherichia coli melAB promoter." Biochem J 318 ( Pt 2);443-9. PMID: 8809031

Otsuka96: Otsuka J, Watanabe H, Mori KT (1996). "Evolution of transcriptional regulation system through promiscuous coupling of regulatory proteins with operons; suggestion from protein sequence similarities in Escherichia coli." J Theor Biol 1996;178(2);183-204. PMID: 8729576

Samarasinghe08: Samarasinghe S, El-Robh MS, Grainger DC, Zhang W, Soultanas P, Busby SJ (2008). "Autoregulation of the Escherichia coli melR promoter: repression involves four molecules of MelR." Nucleic Acids Res 36(8);2667-76. PMID: 18346968

Shimamoto84: Shimamoto T, Yazyu H, Futai M, Tsuchiya T (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the melibiose operon of Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 121(1);41-6. PMID: 6329200

Tamai00: Tamai E, Belyaeva TA, Busby SJ, Tsuchiya T (2000). "Mutations that increase the activity of the promoter of the Escherichia coli melibiose operon improve the binding of MelR, a transcription activator triggered by melibiose." J Biol Chem 275(22);17058-63. PMID: 10747919

Wade00: Wade JT, Belyaeva TA, Hyde EI, Busby SJ (2000). "Repression of the Escherichia coli melR promoter by MelR: evidence that efficient repression requires the formation of a repression loop." Mol Microbiol 36(1);223-9. PMID: 10760179

Wade01: Wade JT, Belyaeva TA, Hyde EI, Busby SJ (2001). "A simple mechanism for co-dependence on two activators at an Escherichia coli promoter." EMBO J 20(24);7160-7. PMID: 11742992

Wade04: Wade JT, Struhl K (2004). "Association of RNA polymerase with transcribed regions in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(51);17777-82. PMID: 15596728

Webster87: Webster C, Kempsell K, Booth I, Busby S (1987). "Organisation of the regulatory region of the Escherichia coli melibiose operon." Gene 59(2-3);253-63. PMID: 2830169

Webster88: Webster C, Gaston K, Busby S (1988). "Transcription from the Escherichia coli melR promoter is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein." Gene 1988;68(2);297-305. PMID: 2851497

Williams94a: Williams J, Michan C, Webster C, Busby S (1994). "Interactions between the Escherichia coli MelR transcription activator protein and operator sequences at the melAB promoter." Biochem J 1994;300 ( Pt 3);757-63. PMID: 8010957

Zheng04: Zheng D, Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Minchin SD (2004). "Identification of the CRP regulon using in vitro and in vivo transcriptional profiling." Nucleic Acids Res 32(19);5874-93. PMID: 15520470


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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