Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: cell division inhibitor of the MinC-MinD-MinE and DicB-MinC systems that regulate septum placement

Gene: minC Accession Numbers: EG10596 (EcoCyc), b1176, ECK1164

Synonyms: minB

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for minC

MinC acts to ensure correct placement of the septum during cell division by suppressing formation of septa at aberrant loci within the cell. MinC-MinD has been reported to interfere with FtsZ ring assembly [Pichoff01] and with FtsA assembly into the FtsZ ring [Justice00]. MinC is involved in both the MinC-MinD-MinE pathway of inhibition of cell division [deBoer89] and in the DicB-MinC inhibition pathway [deBoer90, Labie90, Mulder92, Johnson02].

The MinC-MinD complex inhibits septum formation at any site within the cell, and MinE acts to localize and restrict inhibition to the inappropriate septation sites [deBoer89, Zhao95a, Pichoff95, Raskin97, King99, Shih02]. MinC inhibits FtsZ polymerization but not FtsZ GTPase activity [Hu99]. MinD ATPase activity is required for the MinC-mediated inhibition pathway [deBoer91], and MinD ATPase activity is positively regulated by MinE and phospholipid [Hu01, Lutkenhaus03]. MinD affects the affinity of MinC for the septal ring [Johnson02]. The location of the MinC-MinD complex oscillates from pole to pole within the cell; MinE causes complex dissociation that is followed rapidly by complex formation at the opposite pole [Raskin99, Raskin99a, Hu99a, Hale01, Meinhardt01, Howard01, Kruse02, Lackner03].

MinC homomultimerizes [Hu00]. DicB and MinC physically interact [Johnson02]. The DicB-MinC complex then interacts with the septal ring, where it acts to inhibit FtsZ [Johnson02]. MinC and MinD interact, and MinE disrupts the interaction between MinC and MinD and the membrane association of the complex [Huang96, Hu03, Lutkenhaus03, Lackner03]. In one study, MinC and MinD do not appear to interact directly with FtsZ [Huang96]. Another study reports that MinC does interact with FtsZ [Hu99].

MinC is localized from the cytoplasm to the inner membrane by association with MinD, which is peripherally associated with the membrane [Hu99a]. Membrane localization may raise the local concentration into a range favoring dimerization [Szeto01].

The MinC N terminus interferes with FtsZ assembly [Hu00]. The MinC C terminus mediates interaction with MinD [Hu00] and is required for wild-type abundance of the protein [Sen98].

Septum formation in a minC mutant has been examined [Donachie96]. A MinC19 mutant protein exhibits defects in FtsZ interaction and inhibition [Hu99]. Mutational studies indicate distinct interactions between MinC and DicB and between MinC and MinD [Mulder92, Labie90]. MinC overproduction causes inhibition of cell division that is not subject to MinE-mediated localization [deBoer92]. Overexpression of minCD causes inviability, and this phenotype is suppressed by overexpression of FtsZ or by certain ftsZ mutations [Bi90]. MinC and MinD exhibit an antagonistic genetic interaction with the SdiA activator of ftsQAZ expression [Wang91].

Mutation of the minB locus causes a minicell phenotype [Davie84, deBoer88]. Mutation of the minB locus leads to septation at polar and non-polar sites [Jaffe88], disturbances in the cell cycle [Akerlund92], a DNA supercoiling defect [Mulder90], and defects in DNA segregation [Jaffe88, Mulder90, Akerlund92]. Overexpression of the minB locus causes a minicell phenotype [deBoer88] and a DNA supercoiling defect [Mulder90].

Regulation has been described [deBoer88]. The minB locus includes the minC, minD, and minE genes [deBoer89].

MinC: "minicells"

Reviews: [Donachie93, Rothfield99, Margolin01]

Citations: [Schaumberg83, Labie89, Jaffe90, Mulder91, Rowland00, Gullbrand00, Roos01, Hu03a, Zhou03a]

Locations: inner membrane, cytosol

Map Position: [1,224,608 <- 1,225,303] (26.39 centisomes, 95°)
Length: 696 bp / 231 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 24.775 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0003941 , CGSC:31329 , DIP:DIP-10214N , EchoBASE:EB0591 , EcoGene:EG10596 , EcoliWiki:b1176 , Mint:MINT-113907 , ModBase:P18196 , OU-Microarray:b1176 , PortEco:minC , PR:PRO_000023237 , Pride:P18196 , Protein Model Portal:P18196 , RefSeq:NP_415694 , RegulonDB:EG10596 , SMR:P18196 , String:511145.b1176 , UniProt:P18196

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005526 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007874 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013033 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016098 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03775 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05209

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0051301 - cell division Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, deBoer90]
GO:0051302 - regulation of cell division Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, deBoer90]
GO:0000902 - cell morphogenesis Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0000917 - barrier septum assembly Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a]
GO:0007049 - cell cycle Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0051726 - regulation of cell cycle Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Conti15, Rajagopala14, Shen09a, Butland05]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane

MultiFun Terms: cell processes cell cycle physiology
cell processes cell division
cell structure membrane

Essentiality data for minC knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of cell division inhibitor of the MinC-MinD-MinE and DicB-MinC systems that regulate septum placement with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Extrinsic-Sequence-Variant 10
UniProt: In minC19; reduces affinity of MinC for FtsZ..

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b1176 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10596; confirmed by SwissProt match.


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Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bi90: Bi E, Lutkenhaus J (1990). "Interaction between the min locus and ftsZ." J Bacteriol 172(10);5610-6. PMID: 2211499

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Conti15: Conti J, Viola MG, Camberg JL (2015). "The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinC form polymers in the presence of nucleotide." FEBS Lett 589(2);201-6. PMID: 25497011

Davie84: Davie E, Sydnor K, Rothfield LI (1984). "Genetic basis of minicell formation in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 158(3);1202-3. PMID: 6327636

deBoer88: de Boer PA, Crossley RE, Rothfield LI (1988). "Isolation and properties of minB, a complex genetic locus involved in correct placement of the division site in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 170(5);2106-12. PMID: 2834323

deBoer89: de Boer PA, Crossley RE, Rothfield LI (1989). "A division inhibitor and a topological specificity factor coded for by the minicell locus determine proper placement of the division septum in E. coli." Cell 56(4);641-9. PMID: 2645057

deBoer90: de Boer PA, Crossley RE, Rothfield LI (1990). "Central role for the Escherichia coli minC gene product in two different cell division-inhibition systems." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87(3);1129-33. PMID: 2137246

deBoer91: de Boer PA, Crossley RE, Hand AR, Rothfield LI (1991). "The MinD protein is a membrane ATPase required for the correct placement of the Escherichia coli division site." EMBO J 10(13);4371-80. PMID: 1836760

deBoer92: de Boer PA, Crossley RE, Rothfield LI (1992). "Roles of MinC and MinD in the site-specific septation block mediated by the MinCDE system of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 174(1);63-70. PMID: 1729224

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Donachie93: Donachie WD (1993). "The cell cycle of Escherichia coli." Annu Rev Microbiol 47;199-230. PMID: 8257098

Donachie96: Donachie WD, Begg KJ (1996). ""Division potential" in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 178(20);5971-6. PMID: 8830694

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Gullbrand00: Gullbrand B, Nordstrom K (2000). "FtsZ ring formation without subsequent cell division after replication runout in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 36(6);1349-59. PMID: 10931285

Hale01: Hale CA, Meinhardt H, de Boer PA (2001). "Dynamic localization cycle of the cell division regulator MinE in Escherichia coli." EMBO J 20(7);1563-72. PMID: 11285221

Howard01: Howard M, Rutenberg AD, de Vet S (2001). "Dynamic compartmentalization of bacteria: accurate division in E. coli." Phys Rev Lett 87(27 Pt 1);278102. PMID: 11800919

Hu00: Hu Z, Lutkenhaus J (2000). "Analysis of MinC reveals two independent domains involved in interaction with MinD and FtsZ." J Bacteriol 182(14);3965-71. PMID: 10869074

Hu01: Hu Z, Lutkenhaus J (2001). "Topological regulation of cell division in E. coli. spatiotemporal oscillation of MinD requires stimulation of its ATPase by MinE and phospholipid." Mol Cell 7(6);1337-43. PMID: 11430835

Hu03: Hu Z, Saez C, Lutkenhaus J (2003). "Recruitment of MinC, an inhibitor of Z-ring formation, to the membrane in Escherichia coli: role of MinD and MinE." J Bacteriol 185(1);196-203. PMID: 12486056

Hu03a: Hu Z, Lutkenhaus J (2003). "A conserved sequence at the C-terminus of MinD is required for binding to the membrane and targeting MinC to the septum." Mol Microbiol 47(2);345-55. PMID: 12519187

Hu99: Hu Z, Mukherjee A, Pichoff S, Lutkenhaus J (1999). "The MinC component of the division site selection system in Escherichia coli interacts with FtsZ to prevent polymerization." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(26);14819-24. PMID: 10611296

Hu99a: Hu Z, Lutkenhaus J (1999). "Topological regulation of cell division in Escherichia coli involves rapid pole to pole oscillation of the division inhibitor MinC under the control of MinD and MinE." Mol Microbiol 34(1);82-90. PMID: 10540287

Huang96: Huang J, Cao C, Lutkenhaus J (1996). "Interaction between FtsZ and inhibitors of cell division." J Bacteriol 178(17);5080-5. PMID: 8752322

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jaffe88: Jaffe A, D'Ari R, Hiraga S (1988). "Minicell-forming mutants of Escherichia coli: production of minicells and anucleate rods." J Bacteriol 170(7);3094-101. PMID: 2838458

Jaffe90: Jaffe A, Boye E, D'Ari R (1990). "Rule governing the division pattern in Escherichia coli minB and wild-type filaments." J Bacteriol 172(6);3500-2. PMID: 2188963

Johnson02: Johnson JE, Lackner LL, de Boer PA (2002). "Targeting of (D)MinC/MinD and (D)MinC/DicB complexes to septal rings in Escherichia coli suggests a multistep mechanism for MinC-mediated destruction of nascent FtsZ rings." J Bacteriol 184(11);2951-62. PMID: 12003935

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Justice00: Justice SS, Garcia-Lara J, Rothfield LI (2000). "Cell division inhibitors SulA and MinC/MinD block septum formation at different steps in the assembly of the Escherichia coli division machinery." Mol Microbiol 37(2);410-23. PMID: 10931335

King99: King GF, Rowland SL, Pan B, Mackay JP, Mullen GP, Rothfield LI (1999). "The dimerization and topological specificity functions of MinE reside in a structurally autonomous C-terminal domain." Mol Microbiol 31(4);1161-9. PMID: 10096083

Kruse02: Kruse K (2002). "A dynamic model for determining the middle of Escherichia coli." Biophys J 82(2);618-27. PMID: 11806906

Labie89: Labie C, Bouche F, Bouche JP (1989). "Isolation and mapping of Escherichia coli mutations conferring resistance to division inhibition protein DicB." J Bacteriol 171(8);4315-9. PMID: 2666395

Labie90: Labie C, Bouche F, Bouche JP (1990). "Minicell-forming mutants of Escherichia coli: suppression of both DicB- and MinD-dependent division inhibition by inactivation of the minC gene product." J Bacteriol 172(10);5852-5. PMID: 2211516

Lackner03: Lackner LL, Raskin DM, de Boer PA (2003). "ATP-dependent interactions between Escherichia coli Min proteins and the phospholipid membrane in vitro." J Bacteriol 185(3);735-49. PMID: 12533449

Lutkenhaus03: Lutkenhaus J, Sundaramoorthy M (2003). "MinD and role of the deviant Walker A motif, dimerization and membrane binding in oscillation." Mol Microbiol 48(2);295-303. PMID: 12675792

Margolin01: Margolin W (2001). "Bacterial cell division: a moving MinE sweeper boggles the MinD." Curr Biol 11(10);R395-8. PMID: 11378404

Meinhardt01: Meinhardt H, de Boer PA (2001). "Pattern formation in Escherichia coli: a model for the pole-to-pole oscillations of Min proteins and the localization of the division site." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(25);14202-7. PMID: 11734639

Mulder90: Mulder E, El'Bouhali M, Pas E, Woldringh CL (1990). "The Escherichia coli minB mutation resembles gyrB in defective nucleoid segregation and decreased negative supercoiling of plasmids." Mol Gen Genet 221(1);87-93. PMID: 2183010

Mulder91: Mulder E, Woldringh CL (1991). "Autoradiographic analysis of diaminopimelic acid incorporation in filamentous cells of Escherichia coli: repression of peptidoglycan synthesis around the nucleoid." J Bacteriol 173(15);4751-6. PMID: 1856170

Mulder92: Mulder E, Woldringh CL, Tetart F, Bouche JP (1992). "New minC mutations suggest different interactions of the same region of division inhibitor MinC with proteins specific for minD and dicB coinhibition pathways." J Bacteriol 174(1);35-9. PMID: 1729222

Pichoff01: Pichoff S, Lutkenhaus J (2001). "Escherichia coli division inhibitor MinCD blocks septation by preventing Z-ring formation." J Bacteriol 183(22);6630-5. PMID: 11673433

Pichoff95: Pichoff S, Vollrath B, Touriol C, Bouche JP (1995). "Deletion analysis of gene minE which encodes the topological specificity factor of cell division in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 18(2);321-9. PMID: 8709851

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Raskin97: Raskin DM, de Boer PA (1997). "The MinE ring: an FtsZ-independent cell structure required for selection of the correct division site in E. coli." Cell 91(5);685-94. PMID: 9393861

Raskin99: Raskin DM, de Boer PA (1999). "Rapid pole-to-pole oscillation of a protein required for directing division to the middle of Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(9);4971-6. PMID: 10220403

Raskin99a: Raskin DM, de Boer PA (1999). "MinDE-dependent pole-to-pole oscillation of division inhibitor MinC in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 181(20);6419-24. PMID: 10515933

Roos01: Roos M, van Geel AB, Aarsman ME, Veuskens JT, Woldringh CL, Nanninga N (2001). "The replicated ftsQAZ and minB chromosomal regions of Escherichia coli segregate on average in line with nucleoid movement." Mol Microbiol 39(3);633-40. PMID: 11169104

Rothfield99: Rothfield L, Justice S, Garcia-Lara J (1999). "Bacterial cell division." Annu Rev Genet 33;423-48. PMID: 10690414

Rowland00: Rowland SL, Fu X, Sayed MA, Zhang Y, Cook WR, Rothfield LI (2000). "Membrane redistribution of the Escherichia coli MinD protein induced by MinE." J Bacteriol 182(3);613-9. PMID: 10633093

Schaumberg83: Schaumberg TH, Kuempel PL (1983). "Genetic mapping of the minB locus in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 153(2);1063-5. PMID: 6296039

Sen98: Sen M, Rothfield LI (1998). "Stability of the Escherichia coli division inhibitor protein MinC requires determinants in the carboxy-terminal region of the protein." J Bacteriol 180(1);175-7. PMID: 9422610

Shen09a: Shen B, Lutkenhaus J (2009). "The conserved C-terminal tail of FtsZ is required for the septal localization and division inhibitory activity of MinC(C)/MinD." Mol Microbiol 72(2);410-24. PMID: 19415799

Shih02: Shih YL, Fu X, King GF, Le T, Rothfield L (2002). "Division site placement in E.coli: mutations that prevent formation of the MinE ring lead to loss of the normal midcell arrest of growth of polar MinD membrane domains." EMBO J 21(13);3347-57. PMID: 12093736

Szeto01: Szeto TH, Rowland SL, King GF (2001). "The dimerization function of MinC resides in a structurally autonomous C-terminal domain." J Bacteriol 183(22);6684-7. PMID: 11673440

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Wang91: Wang XD, de Boer PA, Rothfield LI (1991). "A factor that positively regulates cell division by activating transcription of the major cluster of essential cell division genes of Escherichia coli." EMBO J 1991;10(11);3363-72. PMID: 1915297

Zhao95a: Zhao CR, de Boer PA, Rothfield LI (1995). "Proper placement of the Escherichia coli division site requires two functions that are associated with different domains of the MinE protein." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(10);4313-7. PMID: 7753804

Zhou03a: Zhou H, Lutkenhaus J (2003). "Membrane binding by MinD involves insertion of hydrophobic residues within the C-terminal amphipathic helix into the bilayer." J Bacteriol 185(15);4326-35. PMID: 12867440

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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