Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: phosphoglucose isomerase

Gene: pgi Accession Numbers: EG10702 (EcoCyc), b4025, ECK4017

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for pgi

Subunit composition of phosphoglucose isomerase = [Pgi]2

Phosphoglucose isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, an essential step of the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways.

The enzyme is dimeric in solution, but an additional higher molecular weight form that is less active and more negatively charged was found as well [Schreyer80]. The crystal structure of dimeric Pgi from E. coli K-12 has been solved at 2.05 Å resolution [Totir12].

A pgi mutant grows slowly on glucose and utilizes glucose primarily via the pentose phosphate pathway as the source of NADPH [Fraenkel67, Csonka77, Canonaco01, Hua03]; the Entner-Doudoroff pathway I is also used to a lesser degree [Loomis66]. The glyoxylate shunt is also active in a pgi mutant strain [Hua03]. The increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway leads to overproduction of NADPH and thus disturbs the redox balance [Kabir03, Kabir03a], which may be restored by overexpressing SthA [Canonaco01] or a heterologous NADPH-utilizing pathway [Kabir03, Kabir03a]. Deletion of pgi is a common strategy for metabolic engineering of E. coli, e.g. [Simkhada09, Kurumbang10, Chemler10, Kim10b, Kim11, Ahn11, Siedler11, Chin11, Yao11, Callura12, Malla13, Pandey13, Lin14, Shiue15, Ghimire15].

pgi mutant strains that were allowed to evolve for 600-800 generations have been characterized [Fong06, Charusanti10]. When grown on maltose, pgi mutants accumulate maltodextrin and thus stain blue with iodine (the "maltose Blu phenotype") [Roehl79]. pgi expression is induced by oxidative stress, and a pgi deletion mutant is hypersensitive to oxidative stress induced by paraquat [Rungrassamee08]. pgi insertion mutants were identified in a genetic screen for genes that are important for survival of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A pgi deletion mutant has a moderate decrease in IR survival [Byrne14].

Deletion of pgi can suppress the effects of a dnaB8(ts) mutation [Maciag11a]. In an E. coli MG1655 strain pgi was identified as a knockout target for increasing plasmid DNA production [Goncalves13, Goncalves14]. The effect of perturbation (rather than knockout) of pgi gene expression on central carbon metabolism has been studied using 13C metabolic flux analysis [Usui12]. A series of vectors inducibly expressing paired-terminus antisense RNAs was constructed to silence central carbon metabolism in host E. coli K-12 MG1655. A vector that silenced pgi at 90% efficacy resulted in a defect in carbon catabolite repression [Nakashima14].

Phosphoglucose isomerase activity is positively regulated by CsrA [Sabnis95].

pgi is one of a network of genes believed to play a role in promoting the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) response of E. coli K-12 [Al12].

Pgi: "phosphoglucose isomerase" [Fraenkel67]

Citations: [Fraenkel67a]

Locations: periplasmic space, cytosol

Map Position: [4,231,781 -> 4,233,430] (91.21 centisomes, 328°)
Length: 1650 bp / 549 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 61.53 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 59.0 kD (experimental) [Schreyer80 ]

Molecular Weight of Multimer: 125.0 kD (experimental) [Schreyer80]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0013163 , CGSC:409 , DIP:DIP-35887N , EchoBASE:EB0696 , EcoGene:EG10702 , EcoliWiki:b4025 , ModBase:P0A6T1 , OU-Microarray:b4025 , PortEco:pgi , PR:PRO_000025181 , Pride:P0A6T1 , Protein Model Portal:P0A6T1 , RefSeq:NP_418449 , RegulonDB:EG10702 , SMR:P0A6T1 , String:511145.b4025 , Swiss-Model:P0A6T1 , UniProt:P0A6T1

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001672 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018189 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023096 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11469 , PDB:Structure:3NBU , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00342 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00662 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00174 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00765 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51463

In Paralogous Gene Group: 486 (2 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for pgi

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006096 - glycolytic process Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12, UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01, Fraenkel67]
GO:0034599 - cellular response to oxidative stress Inferred from experiment [Rungrassamee08]
GO:0006094 - gluconeogenesis Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0004347 - glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a, GOA01, Schreyer80, Loomis66, Ishii07]
GO:0042802 - identical protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Lasserre06]
GO:0042803 - protein homodimerization activity Inferred from experiment [Schreyer80]
GO:0016853 - isomerase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, Lasserre06]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [Friedberg72]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism central intermediary metabolism
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon glycolysis

Essentiality data for pgi knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Created 14-Jun-2010 by Keseler I , SRI International
Curated 15-Jun-2010 by Keseler I , SRI International
Last-Curated ? 04-May-2015 by Fulcher C , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: phosphoglucose isomerase

Synonyms: glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, D-glucose-6-phosphate-ketol-isomerase

EC Number:

β-D-glucose 6-phosphate <=> β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

This reaction is reversible. [Ishii07]

In Pathways: colanic acid building blocks biosynthesis , O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis (E. coli) , superpathway of glycolysis and Entner-Doudoroff , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass , GDP-mannose biosynthesis , gluconeogenesis I , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I , glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate)

The equilibrium constant for the reaction is 0.30 [Ishii07].

The data from [Schreyer80] are for E. coli K 10.

Early work suggested that low cellular pH inhibits the phosphoglucose isomerase reaction [Klungsoyr64].

Inhibitors (Competitive): phosphoenolpyruvate [Ogawa07]

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): D-gluconate 6-phosphate [Schreyer80]

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)
β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate
[Schreyer80, BRENDA14]
β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate
β-D-glucose 6-phosphate

pH(opt): 8 [Schreyer80]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of Pgi with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
N6-acetyllysine-Modification 80
[Zhang09a, UniProt15]
UniProt: N6-acetyllysine.
N6-acetyllysine-Modification 228
[Zhang09a, UniProt15]
UniProt: N6-acetyllysine.
N6-acetyllysine-Modification 234
[Zhang09a, UniProt15]
UniProt: N6-acetyllysine.
Sequence-Conflict 317
[Smith92, Froman89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1 and 2);
Active-Site 355
UniProt: Proton donor; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Active-Site 386
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Acetylation-Modification 449
Active-Site 514
UniProt: Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b4025 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10702; confirmed by SwissProt match.


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Hua03: Hua Q, Yang C, Baba T, Mori H, Shimizu K (2003). "Responses of the central metabolism in Escherichia coli to phosphoglucose isomerase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase knockouts." J Bacteriol 185(24);7053-67. PMID: 14645264

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Kabir03: Kabir MM, Shimizu K (2003). "Fermentation characteristics and protein expression patterns in a recombinant Escherichia coli mutant lacking phosphoglucose isomerase for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 62(2-3);244-55. PMID: 12883871

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UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Usui12: Usui Y, Hirasawa T, Furusawa C, Shirai T, Yamamoto N, Mori H, Shimizu H (2012). "Investigating the effects of perturbations to pgi and eno gene expression on central carbon metabolism in Escherichia coli using (13)C metabolic flux analysis." Microb Cell Fact 11;87. PMID: 22721472

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Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Martin02: Martin RG, Rosner JL (2002). "Genomics of the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli: identification of directly activated promoters by application of molecular genetics and informatics to microarray data." Mol Microbiol 44(6);1611-24. PMID: 12067348

Olvera09: Olvera L, Mendoza-Vargas A, Flores N, Olvera M, Sigala JC, Gosset G, Morett E, Bolivar F (2009). "Transcription analysis of central metabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Possible roles of sigma38 in their expression, as a response to carbon limitation." PLoS One 4(10);e7466. PMID: 19838295

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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