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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein

Gene: proX Accession Numbers: EG10773 (EcoCyc), b2679, ECK2673

Synonyms: osrA, proU

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of: glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter (extended summary available)

Gene Citations: [Dattananda89, Gowrishankar89]

Locations: periplasmic space

Map Position: [2,805,154 -> 2,806,146] (60.46 centisomes)
Length: 993 bp / 330 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 36.023 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0008818 , CGSC:35653 , EchoBASE:EB0766 , EcoGene:EG10773 , EcoliWiki:b2679 , ModBase:P0AFM2 , OU-Microarray:b2679 , PortEco:proX , PR:PRO_000023604 , Pride:P0AFM2 , Protein Model Portal:P0AFM2 , RefSeq:NP_417165 , RegulonDB:EG10773 , SMR:P0AFM2 , String:511145.b2679 , Swiss-Model:P0AFM2 , UniProt:P0AFM2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007210 , PDB:Structure:1R9L , PDB:Structure:1R9Q , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04069

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0071470 - cellular response to osmotic stress Inferred from experiment [Barron87]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0006865 - amino acid transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Arifuzzaman06, Barron87]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015418 - quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Inferred by computational analysis
Cellular Component: GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space
GO:0042597 - periplasmic space Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations osmotic pressure
metabolism biosynthesis of building blocks amino acids glycine
metabolism biosynthesis of building blocks amino acids proline
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
metabolism central intermediary metabolism betaine biosynthesis
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily + ABC-type Uptake Permeases ABC superfamily, periplasmic binding component

Essentiality data for proX knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Revised 23-May-2011 by Brito D

Subunit of: glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter

Synonyms: PPIII, proline permease III, ProVWX

Subunit composition of glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter = [ProV]2[ProW]2[ProX]
         glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = ProV
         glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter - membrane subunit = ProW
         glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = ProX

ProVWX, the high-affinity transport system for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, is a member of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily of transporters [Wu95]. Based on sequence similarity, ProV is the ATP-binding component of the transporter, ProW is the integral membrane component, and ProX is the periplasmic binding component of the ABC transporter. The periplasmic protein, ProX, was purified to homogeneity, and transport assays with the purified protein show that it binds glycine betaine (Kd of 1μM) and proline betaine (estimated Kd of 5.2μM) with high affinity [Barron87, Haardt95]. This indicates that the ProVWX system is well suited to scavenge glycine betaine and proline betaine from the environment efficiently and to achieve high intracellular concentrations of these osmoprotectants. Many other osmoprotectants (e.g. proline, taurine, ectoine and carnitine) can also be transported via the ProVWX transporter at lower affinities [Lucht94a, Verheul98] as can the betaine precursor, choline [Lamark92].

The genetic regulation of proVWX statement has been studied using lacZ and phoA gene fusions, and it was revealed that expression of the operon is low under regular osmotic conditions, but increases substantially at high osmolarity [Lucht94a].

The intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine by E. coli permits growth in a high-osmolarity environment, which would otherwise strongly inhibit the proliferation of the bacterial cells [Wu95]. Glycine betaine and proline betaine are transported through both the ProVWX system and the ProP transporter in E. coli.

Enzymatic reaction of: transport of a quarternary amine (glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter)

EC Number:

Alternative Products for a quaternary amine: L-carnitine [Verheul98 ] , stachydrine [Haardt95 ]

Enzymatic reaction of: transport of proline (glycine betaine / proline ABC transporter)

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 21
[Barron87, UniProt11]
Chain 22 -> 330
UniProt: Glycine betaine-binding periplasmic protein;
Disulfide-Bond-Site 163, 157

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:


10/20/97 Gene b2679 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10773; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Barron87: Barron A, Jung JU, Villarejo M (1987). "Purification and characterization of a glycine betaine binding protein from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1987;262(24);11841-6. PMID: 3305496

Dattananda89: Dattananda CS, Gowrishankar J (1989). "Osmoregulation in Escherichia coli: complementation analysis and gene-protein relationships in the proU locus." J Bacteriol 1989;171(4);1915-22. PMID: 2649478

Faatz88: Faatz E, Middendorf A, Bremer E (1988). "Cloned structural genes for the osmotically regulated binding-protein-dependent glycine betaine transport system (ProU) of Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Microbiol 2(2);265-79. PMID: 2837616

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Gowrishankar89: Gowrishankar J (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the osmoregulatory proU operon of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1989;171(4);1923-31. PMID: 2649479

Grothe86: Grothe S, Krogsrud RL, McClellan DJ, Milner JL, Wood JM (1986). "Proline transport and osmotic stress response in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 166(1);253-9. PMID: 3514577

Haardt95: Haardt M, Kempf B, Faatz E, Bremer E (1995). "The osmoprotectant proline betaine is a major substrate for the binding-protein-dependent transport system ProU of Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 246(6);783-6. PMID: 7898450

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Lamark92: Lamark T, Styrvold OB, Strom AR (1992). "Efflux of choline and glycine betaine from osmoregulating cells of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 75(2-3);149-54. PMID: 1398030

Lucht94a: Lucht JM, Bremer E (1994). "Adaptation of Escherichia coli to high osmolarity environments: osmoregulation of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system proU." FEMS Microbiol Rev 1994;14(1);3-20. PMID: 8011357

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Verheul98: Verheul A, Wouters JA, Rombouts FM, Abee T (1998). "A possible role of ProP, ProU and CaiT in osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by carnitine." J Appl Microbiol 1998;85(6);1036-46. PMID: 9871325

Wu95: Wu LF, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "A family of homologous substrate-binding proteins with a broad range of substrate specificity and dissimilar biological functions." Biochimie 1995;77(9);744-50. PMID: 8789466

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Lucht94: Lucht JM, Dersch P, Kempf B, Bremer E (1994). "Interactions of the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS with the regulatory region of the osmotically controlled proU operon of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 269(9);6578-8. PMID: 8120010

Rajkumari01: Rajkumari K, Gowrishankar J (2001). "In vivo expression from the RpoS-dependent P1 promoter of the osmotically regulated proU operon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: activation by rho and hns mutations and by cold stress." J Bacteriol 183(22);6543-50. PMID: 11673423

Rajkumari96: Rajkumari K, Kusano S, Ishihama A, Mizuno T, Gowrishankar J (1996). "Effects of H-NS and potassium glutamate on sigmaS- and sigma70-directed transcription in vitro from osmotically regulated P1 and P2 promoters of proU in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(14);4176-81. PMID: 8763946

Salmon03: Salmon K, Hung SP, Mekjian K, Baldi P, Hatfield GW, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12. The effects of oxygen availability and FNR." J Biol Chem 278(32);29837-55. PMID: 12754220

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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