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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: regulatory protein for the phage shock protein operon



Gene: pspA Accession Numbers: EG10776 (EcoCyc), b1304, ECK1299

Synonyms: cog

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
PspA is a negative transcriptional regulator of the psp operon [Weiner91] that does not directly interact with DNA [Dworkin00]. PspA regulates the activity of the catalytic PspF AAA domain via a direct interaction that affects nucleotide binding [Elderkin02, Joly09]. PspA involvement in protein export [Kleerebezem93] is due to its role in maintenance of the protonmotive force under certain conditions of cellular stress [Kleerebezem96a].

PspA is a peripheral [Kleerebezem93] inner membrane protein [Brissette91, Bergler94a]. PspA, PspB, and PspC form a complex, and PspC is required for PspA to bind to PspB [Adams03]. PspA, PspB, and PspC are not observed to cross-link with PspD [Adams03].

PspA is predicted to form a coiled-coil structure, based on its heptad repeat motif [Brissette91]. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a PspA complex revealed a 9-fold rotationally symmetric ring; the nine domains are predicted to be composed of four individual PspA subunits [Hankamer04]. The protein is subject to post-translational modification [Brissette91].

A pspABC mutant exhibits a defect in long-term survival of stationary phase in high pH media and a defect in competition with wild-type strains under these conditions [Weiner94]. A mutant shows defects in protein translocation [Kleerebezem93, Kleerebezem96a]. Multi-copy overexpression of the psp operon increases survival of stress caused by n-hexane treatment [Kobayashi98]. Overexpression of pspA on a multicopy plasmid improved the efficiency of protein export by the Tat system [DeLisa04].

The cog-192 mutation causes deletion of several genes and causes ompG transcription to be directed by the pspA promoter [Fajardo98]. A cog-192 mutation causes the following recessive phenotypes: increased production of OmpG and maltodextrin utilization in a mutant defective in uptake of maltodextrin via the LamB, and PspA is therefore suggested to be involved in OmpG regulation [Misra89].

Regulation has been described [Dworkin97, Dworkin98, Jovanovic99, Carmona99]. The psp operon shows induction upon phage infection, temperature increase, osmotic shock, or exposure to ethanol [Brissette91] or the organic solvents n-hexane or cyclooctane [Kobayashi98]. Induction is mediated by σ54, PspB, PspC [Weiner91], PspF [Jovanovic96], and IHF [Weiner95]. Transcription is induced by conditions that cause stress related to energy depletion [Weiner94]. Treatment with the drugs diazaborine or cerulenin, which inhibit synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids, or treatment with globomycin, which disrupts lipoprotein processing, causes transcriptional induction of pspA [Bergler94a]. PspA production is also increased when protein export is compromised [Kleerebezem93, Hardie96]. Transcription is repressed by PspA and by the heat shock (σ32-dependent) system [Weiner91].

PspA: phage shock protein A [Brissette91]

Cog: control of ompG [Misra89]

Reviews: [Model97, Darwin05]

Gene Citations: [Fozo08]

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Map Position: [1,366,103 -> 1,366,771] (29.44 centisomes)
Length: 669 bp / 222 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 25.493 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 26 kD (experimental) [Kleerebezem93 ], 28 kD (experimental) [Bergler94a ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0004387 , CGSC:32009 , EchoBASE:EB0769 , EcoGene:EG10776 , EcoliWiki:b1304 , OU-Microarray:b1304 , PortEco:pspA , PR:PRO_000023614 , Pride:P0AFM6 , Protein Model Portal:P0AFM6 , RefSeq:NP_415820 , RegulonDB:EG10776 , String:511145.b1304 , UniProt:P0AFM6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007157 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014319 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04012

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0009271 - phage shock Inferred from experiment [Brissette90]
GO:0009408 - response to heat Inferred from experiment [Chuang93]
GO:0006950 - response to stress Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: extrachromosomal prophage genes and phage related functions
information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated operon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level repressor

Essentiality data for pspA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Kobayashi98, UniProt11]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 222
[UniProt09]
UniProt: Phage shock protein A;
Sequence-Conflict 182
[Brissette91, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: A → R; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA40789);


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b1304 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10776; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Adams03: Adams H, Teertstra W, Demmers J, Boesten R, Tommassen J (2003). "Interactions between phage-shock proteins in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2003;185(4);1174-80. PMID: 12562786

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bergler94a: Bergler H, Abraham D, Aschauer H, Turnowsky F (1994). "Inhibition of lipid biosynthesis induces the expression of the pspA gene." Microbiology 140 ( Pt 8);1937-44. PMID: 7921245

Brissette90: Brissette JL, Russel M, Weiner L, Model P (1990). "Phage shock protein, a stress protein of Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(3);862-6. PMID: 2105503

Brissette91: Brissette JL, Weiner L, Ripmaster TL, Model P (1991). "Characterization and sequence of the Escherichia coli stress-induced psp operon." J Mol Biol 220(1);35-48. PMID: 1712397

Carmona99: Carmona M, de Lorenzo V (1999). "Involvement of the FtsH (HflB) protease in the activity of sigma 54 promoters." Mol Microbiol 31(1);261-70. PMID: 9987127

Chuang93: Chuang SE, Blattner FR (1993). "Characterization of twenty-six new heat shock genes of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 175(16);5242-52. PMID: 8349564

Darwin05: Darwin AJ (2005). "The phage-shock-protein response." Mol Microbiol 57(3);621-8. PMID: 16045608

DeLisa04: DeLisa MP, Lee P, Palmer T, Georgiou G (2004). "Phage shock protein PspA of Escherichia coli relieves saturation of protein export via the Tat pathway." J Bacteriol 186(2);366-73. PMID: 14702305

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dworkin00: Dworkin J, Jovanovic G, Model P (2000). "The PspA protein of Escherichia coli is a negative regulator of sigma(54)-dependent transcription." J Bacteriol 2000;182(2);311-9. PMID: 10629175

Dworkin97: Dworkin J, Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "Role of upstream activation sequences and integration host factor in transcriptional activation by the constitutively active prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein PspF." J Mol Biol 273(2);377-88. PMID: 9344746

Dworkin98: Dworkin J, Ninfa AJ, Model P (1998). "A protein-induced DNA bend increases the specificity of a prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein." Genes Dev 12(6);894-900. PMID: 9512522

Elderkin02: Elderkin S, Jones S, Schumacher J, Studholme D, Buck M (2002). "Mechanism of action of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein PspA in repression of the AAA family transcription factor PspF." J Mol Biol 2002;320(1);23-37. PMID: 12079332

Fajardo98: Fajardo DA, Cheung J, Ito C, Sugawara E, Nikaido H, Misra R (1998). "Biochemistry and regulation of a novel Escherichia coli K-12 porin protein, OmpG, which produces unusually large channels." J Bacteriol 1998;180(17);4452-9. PMID: 9721282

Fozo08: Fozo EM, Kawano M, Fontaine F, Kaya Y, Mendieta KS, Jones KL, Ocampo A, Rudd KE, Storz G (2008). "Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs." Mol Microbiol 70(5):1076-93. PMID: 18710431

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Hankamer04: Hankamer BD, Elderkin SL, Buck M, Nield J (2004). "Organization of the AAA(+) adaptor protein PspA is an oligomeric ring." J Biol Chem 279(10);8862-6. PMID: 14688274

Hardie96: Hardie KR, Lory S, Pugsley AP (1996). "Insertion of an outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli requires a chaperone-like protein." EMBO J 15(5);978-88. PMID: 8605893

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Joly09: Joly N, Burrows PC, Engl C, Jovanovic G, Buck M (2009). "A lower-order oligomer form of phage shock protein A (PspA) stably associates with the hexameric AAA(+) transcription activator protein PspF for negative regulation." J Mol Biol 394(4);764-75. PMID: 19804784

Jovanovic96: Jovanovic G, Weiner L, Model P (1996). "Identification, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of PspF, the transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli stress-induced psp operon." J Bacteriol 178(7);1936-45. PMID: 8606168

Jovanovic99: Jovanovic G, Rakonjac J, Model P (1999). "In vivo and in vitro activities of the Escherichia coli sigma54 transcription activator, PspF, and its DNA-binding mutant, PspFDeltaHTH." J Mol Biol 285(2);469-83. PMID: 9878422

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kleerebezem93: Kleerebezem M, Tommassen J (1993). "Expression of the pspA gene stimulates efficient protein export in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1993;7(6);947-56. PMID: 8387148

Kleerebezem96a: Kleerebezem M, Crielaard W, Tommassen J (1996). "Involvement of stress protein PspA (phage shock protein A) of Escherichia coli in maintenance of the protonmotive force under stress conditions." EMBO J 1996;15(1);162-71. PMID: 8598199

Kobayashi98: Kobayashi H, Yamamoto M, Aono R (1998). "Appearance of a stress-response protein, phage-shock protein A, in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrophobic organic solvents." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 2);353-9. PMID: 9493373

Misra89: Misra R, Benson SA (1989). "A novel mutation, cog, which results in production of a new porin protein (OmpG) of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1989;171(8);4105-11. PMID: 2473977

Model97: Model P, Jovanovic G, Dworkin J (1997). "The Escherichia coli phage-shock-protein (psp) operon." Mol Microbiol 24(2);255-61. PMID: 9159513

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Weiner91: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Model P (1991). "Stress-induced expression of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein operon is dependent on sigma 54 and modulated by positive and negative feedback mechanisms." Genes Dev 5(10);1912-23. PMID: 1717346

Weiner94: Weiner L, Model P (1994). "Role of an Escherichia coli stress-response operon in stationary-phase survival." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(6);2191-5. PMID: 8134371

Weiner95: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Ramani N, Model P (1995). "Analysis of the proteins and cis-acting elements regulating the stress-induced phage shock protein operon." Nucleic Acids Res 23(11);2030-6. PMID: 7596833

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Hou12: Hou Z, Fink RC, Black EP, Sugawara M, Zhang Z, Diez-Gonzalez F, Sadowsky MJ (2012). "Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli in response to interactions with the lettuce rhizosphere." J Appl Microbiol 113(5);1076-86. PMID: 22830299

Huvet11: Huvet M, Toni T, Sheng X, Thorne T, Jovanovic G, Engl C, Buck M, Pinney JW, Stumpf MP (2011). "The evolution of the phage shock protein response system: interplay between protein function, genomic organization, and system function." Mol Biol Evol 28(3);1141-55. PMID: 21059793

Jovanovic97: Jovanovic G, Dworkin J, Model P (1997). "Autogenous control of PspF, a constitutively active enhancer-binding protein of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(16);5232-7. PMID: 9260970

Jovanovic97a: Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "PspF and IHF bind co-operatively in the psp promoter-regulatory region of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1997;25(3);473-81. PMID: 9302010

Kamenšek13: Kamenšek S, Žgur-Bertok D (2013). "Global transcriptional responses to the bacteriocin colicin M in Escherichia coli." BMC Microbiol 13;42. PMID: 23421615


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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