Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: PspC transcriptional regulator; toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair

Gene: pspC Accession Numbers: EG10778 (EcoCyc), b1306, ECK1301

Synonyms: phage shock protein

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for pspC

Subunit composition of PspC transcriptional regulator; toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair = [PspC]2
         PspC transcriptional regulator; toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair = PspC

PspC is a leucine zipper-containing transcriptional activator of the psp operon [Brissette91]. PspB and PspC together act to activate transcription of the psp operon in response to infection with bacteriophage, exposure to ethanol, or osmotic shock (but not heat treatment); PspC is essential for this activation, whereas PspB is not strictly required [Weiner91]. PspC is also reported to be a cellular toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair [Brown03].

PspC dimerizes, and this complex resists dissociation in the presence of SDS [Adams03]. The protein is subject to post-translational modification [Brissette91]. PspA, PspB, and PspC form a complex, and PspC is required for PspA to bind to PspB [Adams03]. PspA, PspB, and PspC are not observed to cross-link with PspD [Adams03].

A pspABC mutant exhibits a defect in long-term survival of stationary phase in high pH media and a defect in competition with wild-type strains under these conditions [Weiner94]. Multi-copy overexpression of the psp operon increases survival of stress caused by n-hexane treatment [Kobayashi98]. Episomal expression causes inhibition of cell growth, compared to wild type [Brown03].

The corresponding psp locus of Yersinia enterocolitica (and the PspC homolog in particular [Darwin99]) is virulence-related [Darwin01].

PspC: phage shock protein [Brissette91].

Regulation has been described [Brissette91, Dworkin97, Dworkin98, Jovanovic99, Carmona99, Kobayashi98, Weiner91, Jovanovic96, Weiner95, Weiner94, Bergler94, Weiner91]. The psp operon shows induction upon phage infection, temperature increase, or exposure to ethanol, osmotic shock [Brissette91], or the organic solvents n-hexane or cyclooctane [Kobayashi98]. Induction is mediated by sigma54, PspB, PspC [Weiner91], PspF [Jovanovic96], and IHF [Weiner95]. Transcription is induced by conditions that cause stress related to energy depletion [Weiner94]. Treatment with the drugs diazaborine or cerulenin, which inhibit synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids, or treatment with globomycin, which disrupts lipoprotein processing, causes transcriptional induction of pspA [Bergler94]. Transcription is repressed by PspA and by the heat shock (sigma32-dependent) system [Weiner91].

Review: [Model97, Darwin05].

Gene Citations: [Fozo08]

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Map Position: [1,367,049 -> 1,367,408] (29.46 centisomes, 106°)
Length: 360 bp / 119 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 13.517 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0004391 , CGSC:32015 , DIP:DIP-48215N , EchoBASE:EB0771 , EcoGene:EG10778 , EcoliWiki:b1306 , OU-Microarray:b1306 , PortEco:pspC , PR:PRO_000023616 , Pride:P0AFN2 , Protein Model Portal:P0AFN2 , RefSeq:NP_415822 , RegulonDB:EG10778 , String:511145.b1306 , UniProt:P0AFN2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007168 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014320 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04024

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for pspC

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes protection cell killing
extrachromosomal prophage genes and phage related functions
information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated operon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator

Essentiality data for pspC knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of PspC transcriptional regulator; toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 39 -> 59
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b1306 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10778; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Adams03: Adams H, Teertstra W, Demmers J, Boesten R, Tommassen J (2003). "Interactions between phage-shock proteins in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2003;185(4);1174-80. PMID: 12562786

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bergler94: Bergler H, Abraham D, Aschauer H, Turnowsky F (1994). "Inhibition of lipid biosynthesis induces the expression of the pspA gene." Microbiology 140 ( Pt 8);1937-44. PMID: 7921245

Brissette91: Brissette JL, Weiner L, Ripmaster TL, Model P (1991). "Characterization and sequence of the Escherichia coli stress-induced psp operon." J Mol Biol 220(1);35-48. PMID: 1712397

Brown03: Brown JM, Shaw KJ (2003). "A novel family of Escherichia coli toxin-antitoxin gene pairs." J Bacteriol 185(22);6600-8. PMID: 14594833

Carmona99: Carmona M, de Lorenzo V (1999). "Involvement of the FtsH (HflB) protease in the activity of sigma 54 promoters." Mol Microbiol 31(1);261-70. PMID: 9987127

Darwin01: Darwin AJ, Miller VL (2001). "The psp locus of Yersinia enterocolitica is required for virulence and for growth in vitro when the Ysc type III secretion system is produced." Mol Microbiol 39(2);429-44. PMID: 11136463

Darwin05: Darwin AJ (2005). "The phage-shock-protein response." Mol Microbiol 57(3);621-8. PMID: 16045608

Darwin99: Darwin AJ, Miller VL (1999). "Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica genes affecting survival in an animal host using signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 1999;32(1);51-62. PMID: 10216859

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dworkin97: Dworkin J, Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "Role of upstream activation sequences and integration host factor in transcriptional activation by the constitutively active prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein PspF." J Mol Biol 273(2);377-88. PMID: 9344746

Dworkin98: Dworkin J, Ninfa AJ, Model P (1998). "A protein-induced DNA bend increases the specificity of a prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein." Genes Dev 12(6);894-900. PMID: 9512522

Fozo08: Fozo EM, Kawano M, Fontaine F, Kaya Y, Mendieta KS, Jones KL, Ocampo A, Rudd KE, Storz G (2008). "Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs." Mol Microbiol 70(5):1076-93. PMID: 18710431

Jovanovic96: Jovanovic G, Weiner L, Model P (1996). "Identification, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of PspF, the transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli stress-induced psp operon." J Bacteriol 178(7);1936-45. PMID: 8606168

Jovanovic99: Jovanovic G, Rakonjac J, Model P (1999). "In vivo and in vitro activities of the Escherichia coli sigma54 transcription activator, PspF, and its DNA-binding mutant, PspFDeltaHTH." J Mol Biol 285(2);469-83. PMID: 9878422

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kobayashi98: Kobayashi H, Yamamoto M, Aono R (1998). "Appearance of a stress-response protein, phage-shock protein A, in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrophobic organic solvents." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 2);353-9. PMID: 9493373

Model97: Model P, Jovanovic G, Dworkin J (1997). "The Escherichia coli phage-shock-protein (psp) operon." Mol Microbiol 24(2);255-61. PMID: 9159513

PerezRueda04: Perez-Rueda E, Collado-Vides J, Segovia L (2004). "Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea." Comput Biol Chem 28(5-6);341-50. PMID: 15556475

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Weiner91: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Model P (1991). "Stress-induced expression of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein operon is dependent on sigma 54 and modulated by positive and negative feedback mechanisms." Genes Dev 5(10);1912-23. PMID: 1717346

Weiner94: Weiner L, Model P (1994). "Role of an Escherichia coli stress-response operon in stationary-phase survival." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(6);2191-5. PMID: 8134371

Weiner95: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Ramani N, Model P (1995). "Analysis of the proteins and cis-acting elements regulating the stress-induced phage shock protein operon." Nucleic Acids Res 23(11);2030-6. PMID: 7596833

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Hou12: Hou Z, Fink RC, Black EP, Sugawara M, Zhang Z, Diez-Gonzalez F, Sadowsky MJ (2012). "Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli in response to interactions with the lettuce rhizosphere." J Appl Microbiol 113(5);1076-86. PMID: 22830299

Huvet11: Huvet M, Toni T, Sheng X, Thorne T, Jovanovic G, Engl C, Buck M, Pinney JW, Stumpf MP (2011). "The evolution of the phage shock protein response system: interplay between protein function, genomic organization, and system function." Mol Biol Evol 28(3);1141-55. PMID: 21059793

Jovanovic97: Jovanovic G, Dworkin J, Model P (1997). "Autogenous control of PspF, a constitutively active enhancer-binding protein of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(16);5232-7. PMID: 9260970

Jovanovic97a: Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "PspF and IHF bind co-operatively in the psp promoter-regulatory region of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1997;25(3);473-81. PMID: 9302010

Kamenšek13: Kamenšek S, Žgur-Bertok D (2013). "Global transcriptional responses to the bacteriocin colicin M in Escherichia coli." BMC Microbiol 13;42. PMID: 23421615

Zaslaver06: Zaslaver A, Bren A, Ronen M, Itzkovitz S, Kikoin I, Shavit S, Liebermeister W, Surette MG, Alon U (2006). "A comprehensive library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters for Escherichia coli." Nat Methods 3(8);623-8. PMID: 16862137

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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