|Gene:||pspC||Accession Numbers: EG10778 (EcoCyc), b1306, ECK1301|
Synonyms: phage shock protein
PspC is a leucine zipper-containing transcriptional activator of the psp operon [Brissette91]. PspB and PspC together act to activate transcription of the psp operon in response to infection with bacteriophage, exposure to ethanol, or osmotic shock (but not heat treatment); PspC is essential for this activation, whereas PspB is not strictly required [Weiner91]. PspC is also reported to be a cellular toxin of a PspC-PspB toxin-antitoxin pair [Brown03].
PspC dimerizes, and this complex resists dissociation in the presence of SDS [Adams03]. The protein is subject to post-translational modification [Brissette91]. PspA, PspB, and PspC form a complex, and PspC is required for PspA to bind to PspB [Adams03]. PspA, PspB, and PspC are not observed to cross-link with PspD [Adams03].
A pspABC mutant exhibits a defect in long-term survival of stationary phase in high pH media and a defect in competition with wild-type strains under these conditions [Weiner94]. Multi-copy overexpression of the psp operon increases survival of stress caused by n-hexane treatment [Kobayashi98]. Episomal expression causes inhibition of cell growth, compared to wild type [Brown03].
PspC: phage shock protein [Brissette91].
Regulation has been described [Brissette91, Dworkin97, Dworkin98, Jovanovic99, Carmona99, Kobayashi98, Weiner91, Jovanovic96, Weiner95, Weiner94, Bergler94a, Weiner91]. The psp operon shows induction upon phage infection, temperature increase, or exposure to ethanol, osmotic shock [Brissette91], or the organic solvents n-hexane or cyclooctane [Kobayashi98]. Induction is mediated by sigma54, PspB, PspC [Weiner91], PspF [Jovanovic96], and IHF [Weiner95]. Transcription is induced by conditions that cause stress related to energy depletion [Weiner94]. Treatment with the drugs diazaborine or cerulenin, which inhibit synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids, or treatment with globomycin, which disrupts lipoprotein processing, causes transcriptional induction of pspA [Bergler94a]. Transcription is repressed by PspA and by the heat shock (sigma32-dependent) system [Weiner91].
Gene Citations: [Fozo08]
Locations: cytosol, inner membrane
|Map Position: [1,367,049 -> 1,367,408] (29.46 centisomes, 106°)||Length: 360 bp / 119 aa|
Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 13.517 kD (from nucleotide sequence)
Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0004391 , CGSC:32015 , DIP:DIP-48215N , EchoBASE:EB0771 , EcoGene:EG10778 , EcoliWiki:b1306 , OU-Microarray:b1306 , PortEco:pspC , PR:PRO_000023616 , Pride:P0AFN2 , Protein Model Portal:P0AFN2 , RefSeq:NP_415822 , RegulonDB:EG10778 , String:511145.b1306 , UniProt:P0AFN2
|Biological Process:||GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [UniProtGOA11]
|Cellular Component:||GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016020 - membrane [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane [UniProtGOA11]
|MultiFun Terms:||cell processes → protection → cell killing|
|extrachromosomal → prophage genes and phage related functions|
|information transfer → RNA related → Transcription related|
|regulation → genetic unit regulated → operon|
|regulation → type of regulation → transcriptional level → activator|
|Growth Medium||Growth?||T (°C)||O2||pH||Osm/L||Growth Observations|
|LB Lennox||Yes||37||Aerobic||7||Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]|
|M9 medium with 1% glycerol||Yes||37||Aerobic||7.2||0.35||Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]|
|MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose||Yes||37||Aerobic||7.2||0.22||Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]|
|Transmembrane-Region||39 -> 59|
10/20/97 Gene b1306 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10778; confirmed by SwissProt match.
Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554
Darwin01: Darwin AJ, Miller VL (2001). "The psp locus of Yersinia enterocolitica is required for virulence and for growth in vitro when the Ysc type III secretion system is produced." Mol Microbiol 39(2);429-44. PMID: 11136463
Darwin99: Darwin AJ, Miller VL (1999). "Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica genes affecting survival in an animal host using signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 1999;32(1);51-62. PMID: 10216859
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Dworkin97: Dworkin J, Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "Role of upstream activation sequences and integration host factor in transcriptional activation by the constitutively active prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein PspF." J Mol Biol 273(2);377-88. PMID: 9344746
Fozo08: Fozo EM, Kawano M, Fontaine F, Kaya Y, Mendieta KS, Jones KL, Ocampo A, Rudd KE, Storz G (2008). "Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs." Mol Microbiol 70(5):1076-93. PMID: 18710431
Jovanovic96: Jovanovic G, Weiner L, Model P (1996). "Identification, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of PspF, the transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli stress-induced psp operon." J Bacteriol 178(7);1936-45. PMID: 8606168
Jovanovic99: Jovanovic G, Rakonjac J, Model P (1999). "In vivo and in vitro activities of the Escherichia coli sigma54 transcription activator, PspF, and its DNA-binding mutant, PspFDeltaHTH." J Mol Biol 285(2);469-83. PMID: 9878422
Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394
Kobayashi98: Kobayashi H, Yamamoto M, Aono R (1998). "Appearance of a stress-response protein, phage-shock protein A, in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrophobic organic solvents." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 2);353-9. PMID: 9493373
PerezRueda04: Perez-Rueda E, Collado-Vides J, Segovia L (2004). "Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea." Comput Biol Chem 28(5-6);341-50. PMID: 15556475
Weiner91: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Model P (1991). "Stress-induced expression of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein operon is dependent on sigma 54 and modulated by positive and negative feedback mechanisms." Genes Dev 5(10);1912-23. PMID: 1717346
Weiner95: Weiner L, Brissette JL, Ramani N, Model P (1995). "Analysis of the proteins and cis-acting elements regulating the stress-induced phage shock protein operon." Nucleic Acids Res 23(11);2030-6. PMID: 7596833
Hou12: Hou Z, Fink RC, Black EP, Sugawara M, Zhang Z, Diez-Gonzalez F, Sadowsky MJ (2012). "Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli in response to interactions with the lettuce rhizosphere." J Appl Microbiol 113(5);1076-86. PMID: 22830299
Huvet11: Huvet M, Toni T, Sheng X, Thorne T, Jovanovic G, Engl C, Buck M, Pinney JW, Stumpf MP (2011). "The evolution of the phage shock protein response system: interplay between protein function, genomic organization, and system function." Mol Biol Evol 28(3);1141-55. PMID: 21059793
Zaslaver06: Zaslaver A, Bren A, Ronen M, Itzkovitz S, Kikoin I, Shavit S, Liebermeister W, Surette MG, Alon U (2006). "A comprehensive library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters for Escherichia coli." Nat Methods 3(8);623-8. PMID: 16862137
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