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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12



Gene: rpsL Accession Numbers: EG10911 (EcoCyc), b3342, ECK3329

Synonyms: asuB, strA

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of:
30S ribosomal subunit (summary available)
ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
The S12 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and plays a role in translational accuracy.

Certain mutations in S12 cause streptomycin resistance [Ozaki69]. The streptomycin resistance phenotype is recessive [LEDERBERG51]. Some mutations causing streptomycin resistance also lead to higher translational accuracy [Yates77, Bouadloun83] and a lower rate of protein chain elongation [Zengel77]. The mutations appear to exert their effect by altering the structure of 16S rRNA [Allen89]. Both S12 and S5 appear to facilitate changes in 16S rRNA structure during translation [Lodmell97]. S12 influences the selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs and discrimination both before and after GTP hydrolysis [Yates79], which may be explained by its influence on P site binding of charged tRNAs [Karimi96]. S12 and S13 are also thought to be involved in maintenance of the pre-translocation state of the ribosome [Cukras03]. The kinetic properties of ribosomes with various mutant forms of S12 have been investigated [Bilgin92].

S12 was shown to crosslink to IF3 [Hawley74, MacKeen80, Cooperman81], IF1 [Boileau83] and EF-G [Girshovich81] and protects the pseudoknot structure of the 530 stem/loop region [Powers91], the 900 stem/loop region and the 5' terminus of the 16S rRNA [Stern88] from chemical probes. S12 functionally interacts with the 1409-1491 region [OConnor91, VilaSanjurjo], the 912 region [VilaSanjurjo], and G530 [Powers94] of 16S rRNA as well as the base at position 2661 in 23S rRNA [Tapio91]. The Tyr116-Lys119 residues of S12 appear to be located near the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome [Bischof95].

S12 can bind RNA with broad specificity and act as an RNA chaperone in vitro [Coetzee94], although only weakly in vivo [Clodi99]. S12 is thought to stimulate splicing of Group I introns by resolving misfolded RNAs and assisting proper folding [Coetzee94]. S12 was found to be required for efficient splicing of the phage T4 td gene in vivo [Semrad98].

S12 contains a β-methylthio modification at the Asp88 residue of the mature protein [Kowalak96, Arnold99]. The enzyme responsible for this modification, RimO, has been identified [Anton08].

AsuB: "antisuppressor mutation" [Sullivan85]

Gene Citations: [Johanson92, Saito94a, Post78]

Locations: cytosol, ribosome

Map Position: [3,472,200 <- 3,472,574] (74.84 centisomes)
Length: 375 bp / 124 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 13.737 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010919 , CGSC:220 , DIP:DIP-35806N , DisProt:DP00145 , EchoBASE:EB0904 , EcoGene:EG10911 , EcoliWiki:b3342 , OU-Microarray:b3342 , PortEco:rpsL , PR:PRO_000023865 , Pride:P0A7S3 , Protein Model Portal:P0A7S3 , RefSeq:NP_417801 , RegulonDB:EG10911 , SMR:P0A7S3 , String:511145.b3342 , UniProt:P0A7S3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005679 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006032 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012340 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11652 , PDB:Structure:1M5G , PDB:Structure:1MJ1 , PDB:Structure:1P6G , PDB:Structure:1P87 , PDB:Structure:1VS5 , PDB:Structure:1VS7 , PDB:Structure:1ZN1 , PDB:Structure:2AVY , PDB:Structure:2AW7 , PDB:Structure:2GY9 , PDB:Structure:2GYB , PDB:Structure:2I2P , PDB:Structure:2I2U , PDB:Structure:2QAL , PDB:Structure:2QAN , PDB:Structure:2QB9 , PDB:Structure:2QBB , PDB:Structure:2QBD , PDB:Structure:2QBF , PDB:Structure:2QBH , PDB:Structure:2QBJ , PDB:Structure:2QOU , PDB:Structure:2QOW , PDB:Structure:2QOY , PDB:Structure:2QP0 , PDB:Structure:2VHO , PDB:Structure:2VHP , PDB:Structure:2WWL , PDB:Structure:2YKR , PDB:Structure:2Z4K , PDB:Structure:2Z4M , PDB:Structure:3DEG , PDB:Structure:3DF1 , PDB:Structure:3DF3 , PDB:Structure:3E1A , PDB:Structure:3E1C , PDB:Structure:3EP2 , PDB:Structure:3EQ3 , PDB:Structure:3EQ4 , PDB:Structure:3FIH , PDB:Structure:3I1M , PDB:Structure:3I1O , PDB:Structure:3I1Q , PDB:Structure:3I1S , PDB:Structure:3I1Z , PDB:Structure:3I21 , PDB:Structure:3IZV , PDB:Structure:3IZW , PDB:Structure:3J00 , PDB:Structure:3J0D , PDB:Structure:3J0E , PDB:Structure:3J0U , PDB:Structure:3J0V , PDB:Structure:3J0X , PDB:Structure:3J0Z , PDB:Structure:3J10 , PDB:Structure:3J13 , PDB:Structure:3J18 , PDB:Structure:3J36 , PDB:Structure:3KC4 , PDB:Structure:3OAQ , PDB:Structure:3OAR , PDB:Structure:3OFA , PDB:Structure:3OFB , PDB:Structure:3OFO , PDB:Structure:3OFP , PDB:Structure:3OFX , PDB:Structure:3OFY , PDB:Structure:3OR9 , PDB:Structure:3ORA , PDB:Structure:3SFS , PDB:Structure:3UOQ , PDB:Structure:4A2I , PDB:Structure:4ADV , PDB:Structure:4GAQ , PDB:Structure:4GAS , PDB:Structure:4GD1 , PDB:Structure:4GD2 , PDB:Structure:4KIY , PDB:Structure:4KJ0 , PDB:Structure:4KJ2 , PDB:Structure:4KJ4 , PDB:Structure:4KJ6 , PDB:Structure:4KJ8 , PDB:Structure:4KJA , PDB:Structure:4KJC , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00164 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR01034 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00055

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0000372 - Group I intron splicing Inferred from experiment [Coetzee94]
GO:0006412 - translation Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Zengel77]
GO:0033120 - positive regulation of RNA splicing Inferred from experiment [Coetzee94]
GO:0034337 - RNA folding Inferred from experiment [Coetzee94]
GO:0046677 - response to antibiotic Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Zheng11, Hauser14]
GO:0019843 - rRNA binding Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, Stern88]
GO:0034336 - misfolded RNA binding Inferred from experiment [Coetzee94]
GO:0000049 - tRNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06]
GO:0003723 - RNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0003735 - structural constituent of ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, Zhang07a]
GO:0022627 - cytosolic small ribosomal subunit Inferred from experiment [Hindennach71a, WittmannLiebold73, Kaltschmidt70]
GO:0005840 - ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01]
GO:0015935 - small ribosomal subunit Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0030529 - ribonucleoprotein complex Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure ribosomes
information transfer protein related ribosomal proteins
information transfer protein related translation

Essentiality data for rpsL knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox No 37 Aerobic 7   No [Baba06, Comment 1]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 05-Mar-2008 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: 30S ribosomal subunit

Synonyms: ribosome, small subunit

Subunit composition of 30S ribosomal subunit = [RrsA][RpsA][RpsB][RpsC][RpsD][RpsE][RpsF][RpsG][RpsH][RpsI][RpsJ][RpsK][RpsL][RpsM][RpsN][RpsO][RpsP][RpsQ][RpsR][RpsS][RpsT][RpsU][Sra]
         16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)

Component of: ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
Assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit has been studied in real time. Initial assembly is linked to the formation of structured 16S rRNA regions, while later steps involve induced fit between ribosomal proteins and the rRNA [Adilakshmi08]. Discovery single-particle profiling was used to visualize assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit by indentifying and following changes among 14 subunit assembly intermediates over time [Mulder10]. The kinetically favored assembly pathway of the 30S preinitiation complex has been determined [Milon12].

The function of the ribosomal P site has been reviewed [Noller05].

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:1P6G , PDB:Structure:1P87 , PDB:Structure:2AVY

Enzymes activated by 30S ribosomal subunit, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: GTPase [Daigle04, Himeno04]

Credits:
Created 28-Mar-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: ribosome

Subunit composition of ribosome = [(RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra)][(RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)]
         30S ribosomal subunit = (RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra) (summary available)
                 16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit = (RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)
                 23S ribosomal RNA (rrlA) = RrlA (extended summary available)
                 5S ribosomal RNA (rrfA) = RrfA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L1 = RplA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L2 = RplB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L3 = RplC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L4 = RplD (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L5 = RplE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L6 = RplF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal protein complex L8 = (RplJ)([RplL]2)2 (summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L10 = RplJ (extended summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L7/L12 dimer = (RplL)2
                                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L12 = RplL
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L9 = RplI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L11 = RplK (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L13 = RplM (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 = RplN (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L15 = RplO (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L16 = RplP (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L17 = RplQ (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L18 = RplR (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L19 = RplS (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L20 = RplT (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L21 = RplU (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L22 = RplV (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L23 = RplW (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L24 = RplX (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L25 = RplY (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L27 = RpmA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L28 = RpmB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L29 = RpmC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L30 = RpmD (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L31 = RpmE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L32 = RpmF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L33 = RpmG (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L34 = RpmH (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L35 = RpmI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L36 = RpmJ (summary available)

Summary:
The ribosome is a complex machinery that translates the genetic code.

A crystal structure of the E. coli ribosome has been determined at 3.5 Å resolution [Schuwirth05]. Additional crystal structures of the ribosome with tRNA bound in two functionally distinct states reveal how a ratchet-like motion of the small and large subunits contributes to translocation, termination of translation, and ribosome recycling [Zhang09b, Dunkle11].

Approximately eight molecules of Zn2+ are bound to the ribosome; therefore, it appears that a large fraction of intracellular Zn2+ is ribosome-associated [Hensley11].

Selected reviews: [Ramakrishnan02, Yonath05, Ogle05, Kaczanowska07]

Citations: [Kuhlenkoetter11]

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:3R8N , PDB:Structure:3R8O , PDB:Structure:3R8S , PDB:Structure:3R8T

Credits:
Created 15-Jun-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Common Name Citations Comment State
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1  
[Urlaub95, Funatsu77]
   
Chain 2 -> 124  
[UniProt09]
UniProt: 30S ribosomal protein S12;
 
Extrinsic-Sequence-Variant 43  
[UniProt10]
Alternate sequence: K → R; UniProt: (confers streptomycin resistance but not hyperaccurate translation);
 
Mutagenesis-Variant 57  
[Toivonen99, UniProt11]
Alternate sequence: L → H; UniProt: Protein is not incorporated into ribosomes.
 
Mutagenesis-Variant 88  
[Toivonen99, UniProt11]
Alternate sequence: K → Q; UniProt: Confers low-level resistance to streptomycin and a 15% decrease in the translational elongation rate.
 
3-methylthioaspartic-acid-Modification 89  
[UniProt11a]
UniProt: 3-methylthioaspartic acid.
 
Modified-Residue 89 β-methylthiolated residue
[Kowalak96, Arnold99]
  Modified
Acetylation-Modification 108  
[Zhang09a, Zhang09a]
   


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3342 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10911; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Adilakshmi08: Adilakshmi T, Bellur DL, Woodson SA (2008). "Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly." Nature 455(7217);1268-72. PMID: 18784650

Allen89: Allen PN, Noller HF (1989). "Mutations in ribosomal proteins S4 and S12 influence the higher order structure of 16 S ribosomal RNA." J Mol Biol 208(3);457-68. PMID: 2477554

Anton08: Anton BP, Saleh L, Benner JS, Raleigh EA, Kasif S, Roberts RJ (2008). "RimO, a MiaB-like enzyme, methylthiolates the universally conserved Asp88 residue of ribosomal protein S12 in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(6);1826-31. PMID: 18252828

Arnold99: Arnold RJ, Reilly JP (1999). "Observation of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins and their posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry." Anal Biochem 269(1);105-12. PMID: 10094780

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bilgin92: Bilgin N, Claesens F, Pahverk H, Ehrenberg M (1992). "Kinetic properties of Escherichia coli ribosomes with altered forms of S12." J Mol Biol 224(4);1011-27. PMID: 1569565

Bischof95: Bischof O, Urlaub H, Kruft V, Wittmann-Liebold B (1995). "Peptide environment of the peptidyl transferase center from Escherichia coli 70 S ribosomes as determined by thermoaffinity labeling with dihydrospiramycin." J Biol Chem 270(39);23060-4. PMID: 7559446

Boileau83: Boileau G, Butler P, Hershey JW, Traut RR (1983). "Direct cross-links between initiation factors 1, 2, and 3 and ribosomal proteins promoted by 2-iminothiolane." Biochemistry 22(13);3162-70. PMID: 6349681

Bouadloun83: Bouadloun F, Donner D, Kurland CG (1983). "Codon-specific missense errors in vivo." EMBO J 2(8);1351-6. PMID: 10872330

Clodi99: Clodi E, Semrad K, Schroeder R (1999). "Assaying RNA chaperone activity in vivo using a novel RNA folding trap." EMBO J 18(13);3776-82. PMID: 10393192

Coetzee94: Coetzee T, Herschlag D, Belfort M (1994). "Escherichia coli proteins, including ribosomal protein S12, facilitate in vitro splicing of phage T4 introns by acting as RNA chaperones." Genes Dev 8(13);1575-88. PMID: 7958841

Cooperman81: Cooperman BS, Expert-Bezancon A, Kahan L, Dondon J, Grunberg-Manago M (1981). "IF-3 crosslinking to Escherichia coli ribosomal 30 S subunits by three different light-dependent procedures: identification of 30 S proteins crosslinked to IF-3--utilization of a new two-stage crosslinking reagent, p-nitrobenzylmaleimide." Arch Biochem Biophys 208(2);554-62. PMID: 7020604

Cukras03: Cukras AR, Southworth DR, Brunelle JL, Culver GM, Green R (2003). "Ribosomal proteins S12 and S13 function as control elements for translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex." Mol Cell 12(2);321-8. PMID: 14536072

Daigle04: Daigle DM, Brown ED (2004). "Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro." J Bacteriol 186(5);1381-7. PMID: 14973029

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dunkle11: Dunkle JA, Wang L, Feldman MB, Pulk A, Chen VB, Kapral GJ, Noeske J, Richardson JS, Blanchard SC, Cate JH (2011). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding." Science 332(6032);981-4. PMID: 21596992

Funatsu77: Funatsu G, Yaguchi M, Wittmann-Liebold B (1977). "Primary stucture of protein S12 from the small Escherichia coli ribosomal subunit." FEBS Lett 73(1);12-7. PMID: 320034

Girshovich81: Girshovich AS, Bochkareva ES, Ovchinnikov YA (1981). "Elongation factor G and protein S12 are the nearest neighbours in the Escherichia coli ribosome." J Mol Biol 151(2);229-43. PMID: 7040673

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Hauser14: Hauser R, Ceol A, Rajagopala SV, Mosca R, Siszler G, Wermke N, Sikorski P, Schwarz F, Schick M, Wuchty S, Aloy P, Uetz P (2014). "A Second-generation Protein-Protein Interaction Network of Helicobacter pylori." Mol Cell Proteomics 13(5);1318-29. PMID: 24627523

Hawley74: Hawley DA, Slobin LI, Wahba AJ (1974). "The mechanism of action of initiation factor 3 in protein synthesis. II. Association of the 30S ribosomal protein S12 with IF-3." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(2);544-50. PMID: 4616691

Hensley11: Hensley MP, Tierney DL, Crowder MW (2011). "Zn(II) binding to Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes." Biochemistry 50(46);9937-9. PMID: 22026583

Himeno04: Himeno H, Hanawa-Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, Mikami T, Odagiri F, Osanai Y, Watanabe D, Goto S, Kalachnyuk L, Ushida C, Muto A (2004). "A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome." Nucleic Acids Res 32(17);5303-9. PMID: 15466596

Hindennach71a: Hindennach I, Stoffler G, Wittmann HG (1971). "Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of the proteins from 30S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 23(1);7-11. PMID: 4942549

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Johanson92: Johanson U, Hughes D (1992). "Comparison of the complete sequence of the str operon in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli." Gene 1992;120(1);93-8. PMID: 1398129

Kaczanowska07: Kaczanowska M, Ryden-Aulin M (2007). "Ribosome biogenesis and the translation process in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71(3);477-94. PMID: 17804668

Kaltschmidt70: Kaltschmidt E, Wittmann HG (1970). "Ribosomal proteins. XII. Number of proteins in small and large ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67(3);1276-82. PMID: 4922286

Karimi96: Karimi R, Ehrenberg M (1996). "Dissociation rates of peptidyl-tRNA from the P-site of E.coli ribosomes." EMBO J 15(5);1149-54. PMID: 8605885

Kowalak96: Kowalak JA, Walsh KA (1996). "Beta-methylthio-aspartic acid: identification of a novel posttranslational modification in ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli." Protein Sci 5(8);1625-32. PMID: 8844851

Kuhlenkoetter11: Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011). "Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome." Nature 476(7360);351-4. PMID: 21804565

LEDERBERG51: Lederberg J (1951). "Streptomycin resistance; a genetically recessive mutation." J Bacteriol 61(5);549-50. PMID: 14832197

Lodmell97: Lodmell JS, Dahlberg AE (1997). "A conformational switch in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA during decoding of messenger RNA." Science 277(5330);1262-7. PMID: 9271564

MacKeen80: MacKeen LA, Kahan L, Wahba AJ, Schwartz I (1980). "Photochemical cross-linking of initiation factor-3 to Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits." J Biol Chem 255(21);10526-31. PMID: 7000779

Milon12: Milon P, Maracci C, Filonava L, Gualerzi CO, Rodnina MV (2012). "Real-time assembly landscape of bacterial 30S translation initiation complex." Nat Struct Mol Biol 19(6);609-15. PMID: 22562136

Mulder10: Mulder AM, Yoshioka C, Beck AH, Bunner AE, Milligan RA, Potter CS, Carragher B, Williamson JR (2010). "Visualizing ribosome biogenesis: parallel assembly pathways for the 30S subunit." Science 330(6004);673-7. PMID: 21030658

Noller05: Noller HF, Hoang L, Fredrick K (2005). "The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA." FEBS Lett 579(4);855-8. PMID: 15680962

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Other References Related to Gene Regulation

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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