Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: stringent starvation protein A

Gene: sspA Accession Numbers: EG10977 (EcoCyc), b3229, ECK3218

Synonyms: ssp, pog

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for sspA

The SspA protein is associated with RNA polymerase [Williams94] and is required for transcriptional activation of the bacteriophage P1 late promoter in vivo and in vitro [Hansen03]. SspA is essential for cell survival during acid-induced stress, acting by inhibiting accumulation of the global regulator H-NS during stationary phase [Hansen05].

SspA expression is induced by starvation for glucose, nitrogen, phosphate or amino acids, and it increases with decreasing growth rate [Williams94a].

The SspA protein has been crystallized, but the crystals did not allow structure determination [Andrykovitch03]. Determination of a crystal structure was attempted with SspA proteins from Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia pestis; only the Y. pestis protein diffracted to 2.0 A [Andrykovitch03]. High sequence conservation allows modelling of the E. coli protein on the basis of the Y. pestis SspA crystal structure, and amino acid residues of potential functional importance have been mutagenized [Hansen05a].

Deletion of the sspA gene results in decreased long-term viability under arginine starvation conditions. During exponential growth, expression of at least 11 proteins is altered in the mutant. relA is required for the effect of sspA on protein synthesis [Williams94a].

Gene Citations: [Fukuda88, Serizawa87, Fukuda85, Mason88, Williams91, Kaczanowska04]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [3,374,804 <- 3,375,442] (72.74 centisomes, 262°)
Length: 639 bp / 212 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 24.305 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010594 , CGSC:17860 , DIP:DIP-48104N , EchoBASE:EB0970 , EcoGene:EG10977 , EcoliWiki:b3229 , Mint:MINT-1228576 , OU-Microarray:b3229 , PortEco:sspA , PR:PRO_000023992 , Pride:P0ACA3 , Protein Model Portal:P0ACA3 , RefSeq:NP_417696 , RegulonDB:EG10977 , SMR:P0ACA3 , String:511145.b3229 , Swiss-Model:P0ACA3 , UniProt:P0ACA3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004045 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004046 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR010987 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012336 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00043 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02798 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50404 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50405

In Paralogous Gene Group: 210 (5 members)

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006950 - response to stress Inferred from experiment [Hansen05]
GO:0042594 - response to starvation Inferred from experiment [Williams94a]
GO:0045893 - positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred from experiment [Hansen03]
Molecular Function: GO:0001000 - bacterial-type RNA polymerase core enzyme binding Inferred from experiment [Williams94]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Butland05]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, LopezCampistrou05]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations starvation
information transfer RNA related Transcription related
regulation genetic unit regulated stimulon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level

Essentiality data for sspA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of stringent starvation protein A with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Link97, UniProt11a]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 212
UniProt: Stringent starvation protein A;
Conserved-Region 9 -> 87
UniProt: GST N-terminal;
Conserved-Region 92 -> 209
UniProt: GST C-terminal;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3229 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10977; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Andrykovitch03: Andrykovitch M, Routzahn KM, Li M, Gu Y, Waugh DS, Ji X (2003). "Characterization of four orthologs of stringent starvation protein A." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59(Pt 5);881-6. PMID: 12777805

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Fukuda85: Fukuda R, Yano R, Fukui T, Hase T, Ishihama A, Matsubara H (1985). "Cloning of the Escherichia coli gene for the stringent starvation protein." Mol Gen Genet 201(2);151-7. PMID: 3003520

Fukuda88: Fukuda R, Nishimura A, Serizawa H (1988). "Genetic mapping of the Escherichia coli gene for the stringent starvation protein and its dispensability for normal cell growth." Mol Gen Genet 211(3);515-9. PMID: 2835636

Hansen03: Hansen AM, Lehnherr H, Wang X, Mobley V, Jin DJ (2003). "Escherichia coli SspA is a transcription activator for bacteriophage P1 late genes." Mol Microbiol 48(6);1621-31. PMID: 12791143

Hansen05: Hansen AM, Qiu Y, Yeh N, Blattner FR, Durfee T, Jin DJ (2005). "SspA is required for acid resistance in stationary phase by downregulation of H-NS in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 56(3);719-34. PMID: 15819627

Hansen05a: Hansen AM, Gu Y, Li M, Andrykovitch M, Waugh DS, Jin DJ, Ji X (2005). "Structural basis for the function of stringent starvation protein a as a transcription factor." J Biol Chem 280(17);17380-91. PMID: 15735307

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kaczanowska04: Kaczanowska M, Ryden-Aulin M (2004). "Temperature sensitivity caused by mutant release factor 1 is suppressed by mutations that affect 16S rRNA maturation." J Bacteriol 186(10);3046-55. PMID: 15126466

Link97: Link AJ, Robison K, Church GM (1997). "Comparing the predicted and observed properties of proteins encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli K-12." Electrophoresis 18(8);1259-313. PMID: 9298646

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Mason88: Mason JM, Hackett RH, Setlow P (1988). "Regulation of expression of genes coding for small, acid-soluble proteins of Bacillus subtilis spores: studies using lacZ gene fusions." J Bacteriol 1988;170(1);239-44. PMID: 3121585

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Serizawa87: Serizawa H, Fukuda R (1987). "Structure of the gene for the stringent starvation protein of Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 1987;15(3);1153-63. PMID: 3029697

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

Williams91: Williams MD, Fuchs JA, Flickinger MC (1991). "Null mutation in the stringent starvation protein of Escherichia coli disrupts lytic development of bacteriophage P1." Gene 1991;109(1);21-30. PMID: 1721886

Williams94: Williams MD, Ouyang TX, Flickinger MC (1994). "Glutathione S-transferase-sspA fusion binds to E. coli RNA polymerase and complements delta sspA mutation allowing phage P1 replication." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201(1);123-7. PMID: 8198564

Williams94a: Williams MD, Ouyang TX, Flickinger MC (1994). "Starvation-induced expression of SspA and SspB: the effects of a null mutation in sspA on Escherichia coli protein synthesis and survival during growth and prolonged starvation." Mol Microbiol 1994;11(6);1029-43. PMID: 8022275

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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