Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: curlin, major subunit

Gene: csgA Accession Numbers: EG11489 (EcoCyc), b1042, ECK1028

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for csgA

The CsgA protein is the major subunit of curlin; it is actively secreted to the extracellular milieu [Loferer97], where CsgA monomers self-assemble into curli [Hammar96, Chapman02]. Targeting of CsgA to the CsgG secretion apparatus for secretion across the outer membrane requires the N-terminal 22-amino-acid signal sequence of CsgA [Robinson06]. Curli assembly requires nucleation by the CsgB and CsgF proteins [Hammar95, Chapman02]. In vitro, CsgA protein forms amyloid fibrils with a cross-β structure [Shewmaker09].

Gene Citations: [Neidhardt96, Arnqvist94]

Locations: pilus

Map Position: [1,103,670 -> 1,104,125] (23.79 centisomes, 86°)
Length: 456 bp / 151 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 15.049 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0003537 , CGSC:30620 , DIP:DIP-9325N , EchoBASE:EB1452 , EcoGene:EG11489 , EcoliWiki:b1042 , OU-Microarray:b1042 , PortEco:csgA , PR:PRO_000022336 , Protein Model Portal:P28307 , RefSeq:NP_415560 , RegulonDB:EG11489 , String:511145.b1042 , UniProt:P28307

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009742 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF07012

In Transport reactions:
curlin, major subunit[periplasmic space]curlin, major subunit[extracellular space]

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for csgA

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0007155 - cell adhesion Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Hammar95]
GO:0044010 - single-species biofilm formation Inferred from experiment [Kikuchi05]
GO:1990000 - amyloid fibril formation Inferred from experiment [Shewmaker09]
Cellular Component: GO:0009289 - pilus Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Chapman02]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes defense/survival
metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) fimbri, pili

Essentiality data for csgA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of curlin, major subunit with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 20
[Collinson91, Arnqvist92, UniProt11a]
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 22
Sequence-Conflict 7
[Olsen93, UniProt10a]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA23616);
Chain 21 -> 151
UniProt: Major curlin subunit;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b1042 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG11489; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Arnqvist92: Arnqvist A, Olsen A, Pfeifer J, Russell DG, Normark S (1992). "The Crl protein activates cryptic genes for curli formation and fibronectin binding in Escherichia coli HB101." Mol Microbiol 6(17);2443-52. PMID: 1357528

Arnqvist94: Arnqvist A, Olsen A, Normark S (1994). "Sigma S-dependent growth-phase induction of the csgBA promoter in Escherichia coli can be achieved in vivo by sigma 70 in the absence of the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS." Mol Microbiol 1994;13(6);1021-32. PMID: 7854117

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Chapman02: Chapman MR, Robinson LS, Pinkner JS, Roth R, Heuser J, Hammar M, Normark S, Hultgren SJ (2002). "Role of Escherichia coli curli operons in directing amyloid fiber formation." Science 295(5556);851-5. PMID: 11823641

Collinson91: Collinson SK, Emody L, Muller KH, Trust TJ, Kay WW (1991). "Purification and characterization of thin, aggregative fimbriae from Salmonella enteritidis." J Bacteriol 173(15);4773-81. PMID: 1677357

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Hammar95: Hammar M, Arnqvist A, Bian Z, Olsen A, Normark S (1995). "Expression of two csg operons is required for production of fibronectin- and congo red-binding curli polymers in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Microbiol 1995;18(4);661-70. PMID: 8817489

Hammar96: Hammar M, Bian Z, Normark S (1996). "Nucleator-dependent intercellular assembly of adhesive curli organelles in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(13);6562-6. PMID: 8692856

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kikuchi05: Kikuchi T, Mizunoe Y, Takade A, Naito S, Yoshida S (2005). "Curli fibers are required for development of biofilm architecture in Escherichia coli K-12 and enhance bacterial adherence to human uroepithelial cells." Microbiol Immunol 49(9);875-84. PMID: 16172544

Loferer97: Loferer H, Hammar M, Normark S (1997). "Availability of the fibre subunit CsgA and the nucleator protein CsgB during assembly of fibronectin-binding curli is limited by the intracellular concentration of the novel lipoprotein CsgG." Mol Microbiol 26(1);11-23. PMID: 9383186

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Olsen93: Olsen A, Arnqvist A, Hammar M, Sukupolvi S, Normark S (1993). "The RpoS sigma factor relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional repression of csgA, the subunit gene of fibronectin-binding curli in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 7(4);523-36. PMID: 8459772

Robinson06: Robinson LS, Ashman EM, Hultgren SJ, Chapman MR (2006). "Secretion of curli fibre subunits is mediated by the outer membrane-localized CsgG protein." Mol Microbiol 59(3);870-81. PMID: 16420357

Shewmaker09: Shewmaker F, McGlinchey RP, Thurber KR, McPhie P, Dyda F, Tycko R, Wickner RB (2009). "The Functional Curli Amyloid Is Not Based on In-register Parallel {beta}-Sheet Structure." J Biol Chem 284(37);25065-76. PMID: 19574225

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Barnhart06: Barnhart MM, Lynem J, Chapman MR (2006). "GlcNAc-6P levels modulate the expression of Curli fibers by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(14);5212-9. PMID: 16816193

Bougdour04: Bougdour A, Lelong C, Geiselmann J (2004). "Crl, a low temperature-induced protein in Escherichia coli that binds directly to the stationary phase sigma subunit of RNA polymerase." J Biol Chem 279(19);19540-50. PMID: 14978043

Brombacher03: Brombacher E, Dorel C, Zehnder AJ, Landini P (2003). "The curli biosynthesis regulator CsgD co-ordinates the expression of both positive and negative determinants for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli." Microbiology 149(Pt 10);2847-57. PMID: 14523117

De02: De Wulf P, McGuire AM, Liu X, Lin EC (2002). "Genome-wide profiling of promoter recognition by the two-component response regulator CpxR-P in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 277(29);26652-61. PMID: 11953442

Fink12: Fink RC, Black EP, Hou Z, Sugawara M, Sadowsky MJ, Diez-Gonzalez F (2012). "Transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 and O157:H7 associated with lettuce leaves." Appl Environ Microbiol 78(6);1752-64. PMID: 22247152

Jubelin05: Jubelin G, Vianney A, Beloin C, Ghigo JM, Lazzaroni JC, Lejeune P, Dorel C (2005). "CpxR/OmpR interplay regulates curli gene expression in response to osmolarity in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 187(6);2038-49. PMID: 15743952

Ogasawara11: Ogasawara H, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A (2011). "Role of the Biofilm Master Regulator CsgD in Cross-Regulation between Biofilm Formation and Flagellar Synthesis." J Bacteriol 193(10);2587-97. PMID: 21421764

Pesavento08: Pesavento C, Becker G, Sommerfeldt N, Possling A, Tschowri N, Mehlis A, Hengge R (2008). "Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli." Genes Dev 22(17);2434-46. PMID: 18765794

PrigentCombaret01: Prigent-Combaret C, Brombacher E, Vidal O, Ambert A, Lejeune P, Landini P, Dorel C (2001). "Complex regulatory network controls initial adhesion and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli via regulation of the csgD gene." J Bacteriol 2001;183(24);7213-23. PMID: 11717281

Reshamwala11: Reshamwala SM, Noronha SB (2011). "Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli cra mutants is impaired due to down-regulation of curli biosynthesis." Arch Microbiol 193(10);711-22. PMID: 21559929

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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