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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: protoheme IX ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit

Gene: ccmA Accession Numbers: EG12059 (EcoCyc), b2201, ECK2193

Synonyms: yejW

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of: protoheme IX ABC transporter (extended summary available)

CcmA is the ATP-binding component of the CcmABC protoheme IX ABC transporter.

Gene Citations: [Darwin95, Grove96a]

Locations: periplasmic space, cytosol, inner membrane

Map Position: [2,295,043 <- 2,295,666] (49.47 centisomes)
Length: 624 bp / 207 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 23.053 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0007279 , CGSC:36574 , EchoBASE:EB1989 , EcoGene:EG12059 , EcoliWiki:b2201 , ModBase:P33931 , OU-Microarray:b2201 , PortEco:ccmA , PR:PRO_000022257 , Protein Model Portal:P33931 , RefSeq:NP_416705 , RegulonDB:EG12059 , SMR:P33931 , String:511145.b2201 , UniProt:P33931

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003439 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003593 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005895 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR017871 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00005 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00211 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50893 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51243 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00382

In Paralogous Gene Group: 23 (75 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015886 - heme transport Inferred from experiment [Feissner06]
GO:0006200 - ATP catabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0008152 - metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0017004 - cytochrome complex assembly Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Feissner06]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0015439 - heme-transporting ATPase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0016787 - hydrolase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016887 - ATPase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0043190 - ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, Feissner06]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, DiazMejia09]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0031234 - extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane

MultiFun Terms: information transfer protein related chaperoning, repair (refolding)
metabolism biosynthesis of building blocks cofactors, small molecule carriers heme, porphyrine
metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) large molecule carriers cytochromes
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily + ABC-type Uptake Permeases ABC superfamily ATP binding cytoplasmic component

Essentiality data for ccmA knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Subunit of: protoheme IX ABC transporter

Synonyms: CcmABCDE protoheme IX ABC transporter

Subunit composition of protoheme IX ABC transporter = [(CcmD)(CcmE)(CcmC)][CcmB][CcmA]2
         CcmCDE protoheme IX reservoir complex = (CcmD)(CcmE)(CcmC) (summary available)
                 protoheme IX ABC transporter - membrane subunit CcmD = CcmD (summary available)
                 membrane anchored periplasmic heme chaperone CcmE = CcmE (summary available)
                 protoheme IX ABC transporter - membrane subunit CcmC = CcmC (summary available)
         protoheme IX ABC transporter - membrane subunit CcmB = CcmB (summary available)
         protoheme IX ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = CcmA (summary available)

CcmA-H in E. coli make up a type 1 cytochrome c biogenesis system. In cytochrome c biogenesis, apocytochrome c is translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasm through the sec secretion system where it complexes with heme--also transported across the cytoplasmic membrane. An intramolecular disulfide bond in the apocyctochrome c must be reduced in order for the covalent attachment of heme cofactor to occur. ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, and ccmE are members of an operon whose gene products (CcmA-H) have been shown to be cytoplasmic membrane proteins required for cytochrome c maturation (Cytochrome c maturation proteins). The CcmABCDE protoheme IX ABC transporter has constituents which are members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Sequence analysis suggests that CcmA is the ATP binding subunit and occurs as a homodimer, and CcmB, CcmC, and CcmD are membrane proteins. CcmE is a membrane-anchored, periplasmic heme chaperone. CcmC, CcmD, and CcmE form a complex for transfer of heme from the cytoplasm through CcmC to be covalently attached to CcmE in the periplasm. CcmD acts to stabilize CcmC and CcmE as a complex in the membrane. In this way the CcmCDE complex acts as a heme reservoir, conserving heme for when it is required for use. Binding of CcmA and CcmB and hydrolysis of ATP result in release of holoCcmE from the complex into the periplasm where heme can be incorporated covalently into cytochrome c apoproteins by the CcmEFGH holocytochrome c synthetase.

Immunoprecipitation experiments show CcmA, CcmB and CcmC interact directly and form a complex with a stoichiometry of CcmA2B1C1 [Feissner06]. CcmA is an ABC protein which interacts with the membrane proteins, CcmB and CcmC [Linton98]. CcmC also interacts directly with CcmE [Ren01, Feissner06]. CcmC is a membrane protein whose topology has been determined in homologues in other species [Goldman98] to consist of six transmembrane domains with two cytoplasmic and three periplasmic loops. Studies using point mutations of conserved residues suggest that a hydrophobic, periplasmically situated surface of CcmC is critical for the binding of heme and its presentation to CcmE [Schulz00]. The structure of CcmE has been determined by NMR spectroscopy [Enggist02, Vogeli02, Hu05]. Radiolabeling and spectroscopic analyses indicate that CcmE is a heme-binding protein, and site-directed mutagenesis showed that heme binds transiently to a conserved periplasmic histidine residue [Schulz98a]. CcmD has been shown to be a small, cytoplasmically-oriented membrane protein [Schulz00]. CcmD has been shown to interact directly with CcmC and CcmE and stabilize their interaction [Ahuja05].

Purification and characterisation of the complexes of the Ccm pathway has helped elucidate the mechanisms of haem binding and trafficking [RichardFogal09]. Covalent haem attachment to the CcmCDE complex involves oxidation of haem iron (Fe2+ to Fe3+) and released holoCcmE possesses haem in the oxidised state (Fe3+). Haem in the CcmCDE complex is bound using His60 and His184 of CcmC.

ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, and ccmH mutants are deficient in the ability to produce c-type cytochromes [ThonyMeyer95, Grove96a, Grove96, ThroneHolst97, Tanapongpipat98, Schulz98a, Fabianek99, Reid01a, Enggist03, Edeling04, Ahuja06]. Analysis of ccm deletion mutants has suggested that CcmAB are not essential for heme export and covalent attachment to CcmE, the periplasmic heme chaperone, but CcmC is required [Schulz99, Cook00, Schulz00, Ren01]. Mutation deletion studies suggest that a periplasmically-situated hydrophobic surface of CcmC binds heme and presents it to CcmE in the periplasm [Schulz00]. Mutants of ccmA lack cytochrome c biogenesis in vivo and are unable to transfer heme from CcmE to apocytochrome c [Christensen07a]. Mutation experiments show that even in the absence of CcmAB, CcmC is able to bind CcmE and heme, but CcmA and CcmB are required for release of holoCcmE from CcmC [Feissner06]. Mutation experiments suggest that CcmC is important in not only the transfer of heme to CcmE but also in heme delivery to apocytochrome c [Ahuja03]. Experiments examining cytochrome c biogenesis when heme production is limited show CcmE acts as a heme reservoir and is able to store heme for future use [Feissner06a]. Deletion mutation and immunoprecipitation studies suggest that CcmE shuttles between CcmC and CcmF for heme transfer to apocytochrome c [Ahuja03]. Overexpression of ccmD elevates CcmC and CcmE levels in the membrane and suppresses the phenotypes of certain CcmC mutants [Schulz00]. A ccmD deletion mutant phenotype can be overcome by overexpression of CcmC and CcmE [Schulz98a]. Studies of ccmD deletion mutants have shown that CcmD affects the level of CcmE in the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical for CcmE function [Schulz00] and that it influences the efficiency of the heme transfer process [Ahuja03, Ahuja05].

Expression of ccmABCDEFGH occurs from the napF promoter or from the ccmA promoter, and there is also a weak promoter within ccmD that enables transcription of downstream genes [Grove96a, Tanapongpipat98].

Reviews: [ThonyMeyer97, Kranz98, ThonyMeyer00, ThonyMeyer02, Stevens05]

Citations: [Lee07l, GarciaRubio07, RichardFogal07, Stevens06]

Enzymatic reaction of: protoheme IX ABC transporter

Synonyms: transport of protoheme IX

EC Number:

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Conserved-Region 4 -> 207
UniProt: ABC transporter;
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 36 -> 43
UniProt: ATP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:


Peter D. Karp on Wed Jan 18, 2006:
Gene right-end position adjusted based on analysis performed in the 2005 E. coli annotation update [Riley06 ].
10/20/97 Gene b2201 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG12059; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Ahuja03: Ahuja U, Thony-Meyer L (2003). "Dynamic features of a heme delivery system for cytochrome C maturation." J Biol Chem 278(52);52061-70. PMID: 14532274

Ahuja05: Ahuja U, Thony-Meyer L (2005). "CcmD is involved in complex formation between CcmC and the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation." J Biol Chem 280(1);236-43. PMID: 15513913

Ahuja06: Ahuja U, Thony-Meyer L (2006). "The membrane anchors of the heme chaperone CcmE and the periplasmic thioredoxin CcmG are functionally important." FEBS Lett 580(1);216-22. PMID: 16364305

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Christensen07a: Christensen O, Harvat EM, Thony-Meyer L, Ferguson SJ, Stevens JM (2007). "Loss of ATP hydrolysis activity by CcmAB results in loss of c-type cytochrome synthesis and incomplete processing of CcmE." FEBS J 274(9);2322-32. PMID: 17419738

Cook00: Cook GM, Poole RK (2000). "Oxidase and periplasmic cytochrome assembly in Escherichia coli K-12: CydDC and CcmAB are not required for haem-membrane association." Microbiology 2000;146 ( Pt 2);527-36. PMID: 10708391

Darwin95: Darwin AJ, Stewart V (1995). "Nitrate and nitrite regulation of the Fnr-dependent aeg-46.5 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12 is mediated by competition between homologous response regulators (NarL and NarP) for a common DNA-binding site." J Mol Biol 1995;251(1);15-29. PMID: 7643383

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Edeling04: Edeling MA, Ahuja U, Heras B, Thony-Meyer L, Martin JL (2004). "The acidic nature of the CcmG redox-active center is important for cytochrome c maturation in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(12);4030-3. PMID: 15175318

Enggist02: Enggist E, Thony-Meyer L, Guntert P, Pervushin K (2002). "NMR structure of the heme chaperone CcmE reveals a novel functional motif." Structure 10(11);1551-7. PMID: 12429096

Enggist03: Enggist E, Schneider MJ, Schulz H, Thony-Meyer L (2003). "Biochemical and mutational characterization of the heme chaperone CcmE reveals a heme binding site." J Bacteriol 185(1);175-83. PMID: 12486054

Fabianek99: Fabianek RA, Hofer T, Thony-Meyer L (1999). "Characterization of the Escherichia coli CcmH protein reveals new insights into the redox pathway required for cytochrome c maturation." Arch Microbiol 171(2);92-100. PMID: 9914305

Feissner06: Feissner RE, Richard-Fogal CL, Frawley ER, Kranz RG (2006). "ABC transporter-mediated release of a haem chaperone allows cytochrome c biogenesis." Mol Microbiol 61(1);219-31. PMID: 16824107

Feissner06a: Feissner RE, Richard-Fogal CL, Frawley ER, Loughman JA, Earley KW, Kranz RG (2006). "Recombinant cytochromes c biogenesis systems I and II and analysis of haem delivery pathways in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 60(3);563-77. PMID: 16629661

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

GarciaRubio07: Garcia-Rubio I, Braun M, Gromov I, Thony-Meyer L, Schweiger A (2007). "Axial coordination of heme in ferric CcmE chaperone characterized by EPR spectroscopy." Biophys J 92(4);1361-73. PMID: 17142277

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Goldman98: Goldman BS, Beck DL, Monika EM, Kranz RG (1998). "Transmembrane heme delivery systems." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(9);5003-8. PMID: 9560218

Grove96: Grove J, Busby S, Cole J (1996). "The role of the genes nrf EFG and ccmFH in cytochrome c biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 1996;252(3);332-41. PMID: 8842153

Grove96a: Grove J, Tanapongpipat S, Thomas G, Griffiths L, Crooke H, Cole J (1996). "Escherichia coli K-12 genes essential for the synthesis of c-type cytochromes and a third nitrate reductase located in the periplasm." Mol Microbiol 1996;19(3);467-81. PMID: 8830238

Hu05: Hu K, Vogeli B, Pervushin K (2005). "Side-chain H and C resonance assignment in protonated/partially deuterated proteins using an improved 3D(13)C-detected HCC-TOCSY." J Magn Reson 174(2);200-8. PMID: 15862235

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kranz98: Kranz R, Lill R, Goldman B, Bonnard G, Merchant S (1998). "Molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c biogenesis: three distinct systems." Mol Microbiol 29(2);383-96. PMID: 9720859

Lee07l: Lee JH, Harvat EM, Stevens JM, Ferguson SJ, Saier MH (2007). "Evolutionary origins of members of a superfamily of integral membrane cytochrome c biogenesis proteins." Biochim Biophys Acta 1768(9);2164-81. PMID: 17706591

Linton98: Linton KJ, Higgins CF (1998). "The Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins." Mol Microbiol 1998;28(1);5-13. PMID: 9593292

Reid01a: Reid E, Cole J, Eaves DJ (2001). "The Escherichia coli CcmG protein fulfils a specific role in cytochrome c assembly." Biochem J 355(Pt 1);51-8. PMID: 11256948

Ren01: Ren Q, Thony-Meyer L (2001). "Physical interaction of CcmC with heme and the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation." J Biol Chem 276(35);32591-6. PMID: 11384983

RichardFogal07: Richard-Fogal CL, Frawley ER, Feissner RE, Kranz RG (2007). "Heme concentration dependence and metalloporphyrin inhibition of the system I and II cytochrome c assembly pathways." J Bacteriol 189(2);455-63. PMID: 17085564

RichardFogal09: Richard-Fogal CL, Frawley ER, Bonner ER, Zhu H, San Francisco B, Kranz RG (2009). "A conserved haem redox and trafficking pathway for cofactor attachment." EMBO J 28(16);2349-59. PMID: 19629033

Riley06: Riley M, Abe T, Arnaud MB, Berlyn MK, Blattner FR, Chaudhuri RR, Glasner JD, Horiuchi T, Keseler IM, Kosuge T, Mori H, Perna NT, Plunkett G, Rudd KE, Serres MH, Thomas GH, Thomson NR, Wishart D, Wanner BL (2006). "Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005." Nucleic Acids Res 34(1);1-9. PMID: 16397293

Schulz00: Schulz H, Pellicioli EC, Thony-Meyer L (2000). "New insights into the role of CcmC, CcmD and CcmE in the haem delivery pathway during cytochrome c maturation by a complete mutational analysis of the conserved tryptophan-rich motif of CcmC." Mol Microbiol 37(6);1379-88. PMID: 10998170

Schulz98a: Schulz H, Hennecke H, Thony-Meyer L (1998). "Prototype of a heme chaperone essential for cytochrome c maturation." Science 281(5380);1197-200. PMID: 9712585

Schulz99: Schulz H, Fabianek RA, Pellicioli EC, Hennecke H, Thony-Meyer L (1999). "Heme transfer to the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation requires the CcmC protein, which may function independently of the ABC-transporter CcmAB." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96(11);6462-7. PMID: 10339610

Stevens05: Stevens JM, Uchida T, Daltrop O, Ferguson SJ (2005). "Covalent cofactor attachment to proteins: cytochrome c biogenesis." Biochem Soc Trans 33(Pt 4);792-5. PMID: 16042600

Stevens06: Stevens JM, Uchida T, Daltrop O, Kitagawa T, Ferguson SJ (2006). "Dynamic ligation properties of the Escherichia coli heme chaperone CcmE to non-covalently bound heme." J Biol Chem 281(10);6144-51. PMID: 16373344

Tanapongpipat98: Tanapongpipat S, Reid E, Cole JA, Crooke H (1998). "Transcriptional control and essential roles of the Escherichia coli ccm gene products in formate-dependent nitrite reduction and cytochrome c synthesis." Biochem J 334 ( Pt 2);355-65. PMID: 9716493

ThonyMeyer00: Thony-Meyer L (2000). "Haem-polypeptide interactions during cytochrome c maturation." Biochim Biophys Acta 1459(2-3);316-24. PMID: 11004446

ThonyMeyer02: Thony-Meyer L (2002). "Cytochrome c maturation: a complex pathway for a simple task?." Biochem Soc Trans 30(4);633-8. PMID: 12196152

ThonyMeyer95: Thony-Meyer L, Fischer F, Kunzler P, Ritz D, Hennecke H (1995). "Escherichia coli genes required for cytochrome c maturation." J Bacteriol 177(15);4321-6. PMID: 7635817

ThonyMeyer97: Thony-Meyer L (1997). "Biogenesis of respiratory cytochromes in bacteria." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1997;61(3);337-76. PMID: 9293186

ThroneHolst97: Throne-Holst M, Thony-Meyer L, Hederstedt L (1997). "Escherichia coli ccm in-frame deletion mutants can produce periplasmic cytochrome b but not cytochrome c." FEBS Lett 410(2-3);351-5. PMID: 9237661

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vogeli02: Vogeli B, Pervushin K (2002). "TROSY experiment for refinement of backbone psi and phi by simultaneous measurements of cross-correlated relaxation rates and 3,4J(H alpha HN) coupling constants." J Biomol NMR 24(4);291-300. PMID: 12522294

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Choe93: Choe M, Reznikoff WS (1993). "Identification of the regulatory sequence of anaerobically expressed locus aeg-46.5." J Bacteriol 1993;175(4);1165-72. PMID: 8432709

Darwin98: Darwin AJ, Ziegelhoffer EC, Kiley PJ, Stewart V (1998). "Fnr, NarP, and NarL regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operon transcription in vitro." J Bacteriol 1998;180(16);4192-8. PMID: 9696769

McNicholas02: McNicholas PM, Gunsalus RP (2002). "The molybdate-responsive Escherichia coli ModE transcriptional regulator coordinates periplasmic nitrate reductase (napFDAGHBC) operon expression with nitrate and molybdate availability." J Bacteriol 184(12);3253-9. PMID: 12029041

Partridge09: Partridge JD, Bodenmiller DM, Humphrys MS, Spiro S (2009). "NsrR targets in the Escherichia coli genome: new insights into DNA sequence requirements for binding and a role for NsrR in the regulation of motility." Mol Microbiol 73(4);680-94. PMID: 19656291

Pruss01: Pruss BM, Liu X, Hendrickson W, Matsumura P (2001). "FlhD/FlhC-regulated promoters analyzed by gene array and lacZ gene fusions." FEMS Microbiol Lett 2001;197(1);91-7. PMID: 11287152

Stewart03: Stewart V, Bledsoe PJ, Williams SB (2003). "Dual overlapping promoters control napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 185(19);5862-70. PMID: 13129959

Stewart03a: Stewart V, Bledsoe PJ (2003). "Synthetic lac operator substitutions for studying the nitrate- and nitrite-responsive NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 185(7);2104-11. PMID: 12644479

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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