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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 RNA: rrsC 16S ribosomal RNA



Gene: rrsC Accession Numbers: EG30086 (EcoCyc), b3756, ECK3750

Superclasses: 16S-rRNAs

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
The 16S rRNA is the RNA component of the small subunit (30S subunit) of the E. coli ribosome.

There are seven ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons, called rrsA, rrsB, rrsC, rrsD, rrsE, rrsG, and rrsH [Neidhardt96]. Each operon contains a 16S rRNA gene, a 23S rRNA gene, and a 5S rRNA gene (except the rrsD operon, which contains two 5S rRNA genes) interspersed with various tRNA genes [Neidhardt96]. Regarding nomenclature, "rrs" genes encode 16S rRNAs, "rrl" genes encode 23S rRNAs, and "rrf" genes encode 5S rRNAs [Neidhardt96].

The sequence and structure of the 16S rRNA has been described [Nichols67, Cramer68, Fellner68, Fellner69, Fellner70, Fellner70a, Muto70, Ehresmann70, Muto71, Fellner71, Brownlee71, Lowry71, Hayes71, Fellner72, Ehresmann72, Santer72, Fellner72a, Ortega73, Santer73, Uchida74, Chichkova, Noller74, Ehresmann74, Noller74a, Ehresmann75, Ehresmann75a, Woese75, Sprague75, Tang75, Ungewickell75, Magrum75, Kumagai76, Milner76, Hochkeppel76, Wagner76a, Baan77, Potapov, Ross78, Thurlow78, Zwieb78, Brosius78, Bogdanov78, Matveev79, Santer79, Spirin79, Yuan79, Skripkin79, Edlind80, Woese80, Glotz80, Zwieb80, Thomas80, Stiegler80, Osterberg80, Noller81, Stiegler81, Horie81, Zwieb81, Van81a, Tam81, Turner82, Van82, Thompson83a, Wickstrom83, ExpertBezancon83, Maly83, Woese83, Chu83, Serdiuk, Klein84, Klein85, Klein85a, Kean85, Kean85a, Atmadja85, Atmadja86, Gutell86, Borisova, Baudin87, Mougel87, Bogdanov88, Brimacombe88a, Heus88, Mougel88, Schuler88, Stiege88, Brimacombe88, Lasater88, Mandiyan88, Nagano88, Ericson88, Stern88b, Ericson89, Gornicki89, Woese89, Baudin89, Ericson89a, Allen89a, Mandiyan89, Oakes90, Malhotra90, Brimacombe90, Rahman90, Woese90, Leclerc91, Dubreuil91, Powers91, Lesniewska91, Flamion91, Mandiyan91, Weller92, Doring92, Cunningham92, Laughrea92, Dammel93, Brink93, Timchenko93, Malhotra94, Minchew95, Wollenzien95, Triman95a, Van95c, Mueller95, Lodmell95, Heilek96, Fourmy96, Kalurachchi97, Wilms97, Masquida97, Baranov97, Lodmell97, Mueller97, Kaloyanova97, Moine97a, Poot98, Kalurachchi98, Leontis98, Noah98, Montpetit98, Fuchs98, Newcomb99, Noah99, Muth99, Besancon99, Muth00, Morris74, Morosyuk00, Noah00, Gutell00, Juzumiene01, Morosyuk01, VilaSanjurjo01, Zhang01b, Dolan01, Nagaswamy01, Bowen01, Beck70, Serganov02, Belanger02, Mahara03, Sakamoto01a, Zhirnov03].

The relationship of the 16S rRNA to ribosome assembly, structure, and function has been characterized [Santer72, Mangiarotti74, Wireman74, Wireman74a, Held74b, Schwartz74a, Noller74, Mangiarotti75, Moore75, Shine75, Potapova, Potapovb, Sprague75, Schwartz75, Markey75, Harvey75, Steitz75, Saltzman76, Pon76, Baan76, Branlant76a, Ravetch76, Gorelic76, Wagner76a, Schendel76, Politz77, Santer77, Sprague77a, Hui77, Hogan78, Schwartz78a, Taniguchi78, Schreiber79, KerenZur79, Karathanasis79, Santer79, Spirin79, Zimmermann79, Ofengand79, Spirin, Girshovich80, Neilson80, Poldermans80, Giocanti80, Thomas80, Scherer80, Skold81, Luhrmann81, Ofengand81, Jayaraman81, Trudel81, Robbins81, StofflerMeilick81, Tam81, Skripkin81, Taylor81, Gimautdinova, Prince82, Chiam83, Tewari83, Burma83, Brewer83a, Tate83b, Robbins83, Ehresmann84, Ehresmann84a, Meier84, Cunningham84, Meier85, Abdurashidova, Gornicki85, Ciesiolka85, Helk85, Oakes86, Tapprich86, Ramakrishnan86a, Wickstrom86, Ehresmann86, Moazed86, Baudin87, Brimacombe88a, Denman88, Afonina, Stiege88a, Weiss88, Schuler88, Babkina88, Murgola88, Min88, Powers88, Lasater88, Nowotny88, Spanjaard88, Cunningham88, Petersen88, Thanaraj88, Denman89, Denman89a, Gornicki89, Thanaraj89, Stern89, Eckert89, Tapprich89, Baudin89, Muralikrishna89, Mandiyan89, Stade89, Moazed90, Lasater90, Oakes90a, Oakes90, Sprengart90, Brimacombe90, Romby90, Wakao90, Hanfler90, Rahman90, Wollenzien91, Podkowinski91, Afonina91, Cunningham91, McWilliams, Wakao91, Nagano, RinkeAppel91, Goringer91, Dontsova91, Mandiyan91, Prescott91, Frank91, Laughrea91, Mitchell92, Agrawal92, Bhangu92, Dontsova92, OConnor92, Brandt92, Weitzmann93, Powers93, Cunningham93, Powers93a, Brink93, Powers94, deSmit94, Pinard94, Bhangu94, Brink94, Doring94, Malhotra94, Weller94, RinkeAppel94, Samaha94, Purohit94, Alexander94a, Brown94, Minchew95, Wollenzien95, Heilek95, Pardon95, Moazed95, Juzumiene95, Ivanov95, Beniac95, Ericson95, Easterwood95, Osswald95, RinkeAppel95, Sprengart96, Karimi96, Dragon96, Poot96, OConnor97, Sergiev97, Wilms97, Lodmell97, Mueller97, Mueller97a, Kaloyanova97, Bullard98, Gurevich97, VanLoock97, Arkov98, Mundus98, Newcomb99, VanLoock99, Culver99, Wang99c, Gabashvili99, Culver99a, Yoshizawa99, Sayed99, Meier00, Shapkina00, Dahlquist00, VanLoock00, Moll01, Schaferkordt01, Yusupova01, Shabalina, Tung02, Jagannathan03, Zhang03h].

Interactions between the 16S rRNA and ribosomal proteins have been described [Garrett72, Nanninga72, DayaGrosjean72, Zimmermann72, Schaup73, Schulte74, Amons74, Chichkova, Zimmermann75, Schulte75, Kopylov75, Dahlberg75, Ungewickell75, Ehresmann75b, Gorelic75, Gorelic76, Sloof76, Ehresmann76, Schendel76, Barritault77, Spicer77, Mackie77, Hochkeppel77, Bruce77, Mackie77a, Cole78, Zwieb78a, Thurlow78, Changchien78, Osterberg78, Rinke78, Marquardt79, Yuan79, Shpungin, Giocanti80, Skold81, Politz81, Schwarzbauer81, Gorelic82, Paterakis82, Chiaruttini82, Wower83, Brewer83a, Thurlow83, Serdiuk, Abdurashidova, Changchien85, Schwarzbauer85, Kyriatsoulis86, Changchien86, Mougel86, Hajnsdorf86, Nitta86, Gregory86, Budowsky86, Changchien86a, Chiaruttini86, Osswald87, Greuer87, Wiener87, Tukalo87, Mougel87, Conrad87, Donly88, Wiener88, Mougel88, Shestopalov, Stern88, Chistyakov88, Nowotny88, Gregory88, Hajnsdorf89, Chiaruttini89, Vartikar89, Sapag90, Brimacombe91, Cormack91, OConnor91, Weitzmann91, Weitzmann93, Dragon93, Mougel93, Wu94, Samaha94, Allmang94, Dragon94, Uma95, Urlaub95, Moine97, Kalurachchi97, Sapag97, Urlaub97, Mueller97b, Tanaka98, Kalurachchi98, Robert00, Robert01, Serganov01, Rassokhin, Serganov02, Jagannathan03].

Analysis of mutations in 16S rRNA has been conducted [Zagorska80, Zwieb84, Sigmund84, Jemiolo85, Zwieb86, Gregory86, Montandon86, Krzyzosiak87, Jacob87, Hui87, Makosky87, Weiss88, Murgola88, Rottmann88, Melancon88, Yamagishi88, Cunningham88, Latif88, Krzyzosiak88, Hui88, Denman89, Denman89a, De89, Gravel89, Tapprich89, Triman89, Leclerc90a, Prescott90, Powers90, Bilgin90, De90, Melancon90, Santer90, Cunningham90, Frattali90, Melancon90a, Prescott90a, Hanfler90, Bonny91, Prescott, Allen91, Leclerc91a, Powers91, Goringer91, Jemiolo91, Cormack91, Prescott91, Almehdi91, Prescott92, OConnor92, Cunningham92a, Cunningham92, Pinard93, Powers93b, Powers93, Dammel93, Brown93a, Santer93, Cunningham93, Brink93, Ringquist93, Poot93, Formenoy94, deSmit94, Brink94a, Pinard94, Brink94, Wu94, Triman94, Moine94, Dragon94, Triman95, Johanson95, Santer95, Dammel95, Pinard95, Triman95a, Van95c, BrakierGingras95, Murgola95, Lodmell95, Gregory95, Triman96a, Firpo96, Dragon96, Poot96, Miyaguchi96, Recht96, Triman97, Poot97, OConnor97, Pagel97, Sapag97, Lee97b, Moine97a, Poot98, Arkov98, Firpo98, Recht99, Asai99, Recht99a, Asai99a, OConnor99, VilaSanjurjo99, Dahlquist00, Morosyuk00, Koosha00, Serganov01, Morosyuk01a, OConnor01, VilaSanjurjo01, Schaferkordt01, Brunelli02, Belanger02, Zhang03h].

The 16S rRNA is subject to post-transcriptional processing, methylation, and pseudouridylation. Processing and modification of the 16S rRNA has been characterized [Brownlee71, Lowry71, Hayes71, Helser71, Sogin72, Mangiarotti74, Wireman74, Wireman74a, Dean74, Thammana74, Mangiarotti75, Duncan75, Tang75, Markey75, Johnson76a, Treton76, Politz77, Pardo77, Hofmann77, Andersen78, Young78, Dahlberg78, Gegenheimer78, Olsson79, Lebenka, Poldermans80, Gegenheimer80, Politz80, Igarashi80, Van81b, Van81c, Van81a, Van82, Zueva84, Zueva85, Krych87, Melancon87, Szymkowiak88, Thomas88, Srivastava89, Negre89, Ericson89a, Srivastava89a, Cunningham90, Cunningham91, Bonny91, Jemiolo91, Weitzmann91, Smith92a, Brimacombe93, Kowalak93, Ringquist93, Formenoy94, Gu94a, Bakin94, Britschgi95, Pardon95, Wrzesinski95, Bylund98, Huang98c, Tscherne99, Hansen99, Tscherne99a, Gu99a, Li99e, Wachi99, Conrad99, Tock00, Feunteun74, Schaferkordt01, Xia03].

The 16S rRNA is targeted by a number of antibiotic agents. The functional interactions between antibiotic sensitivity and 16S rRNA have been examined in detail [Bowman71, Helser71, DayaGrosjean72, Samson72, Dahlberg73, Garvin74, Harvey75, Pardo77, Ohno78, Olsson79, Sigmund84, Melancon84, Montandon86, Makosky87, Gravel87, Sigmund88, Melancon88, De89, Allen89a, Triman89, Bilgin90, De90, Buck90, Frattali90, Leclerc91, Bonny91, Egebjerg, Allen91, Leclerc91a, Powers91, Woodcock91, Rasmussen91a, Leclerc91b, OConnor91, Pinard93, Brown93a, Powers94, Brink94a, Purohit94, Britschgi95, Johanson95, Karimi96, Miyaguchi96, Recht96, Fourmy96, Oehler97, Thom97, Spickler97, VanLoock97, Blanchard98, Wong98, VanLoock99, Recht99, Dorner99, Noah99, Recht99a, Matassova99, VilaSanjurjo99, Cashman01, Lynch01a, Ganoza01, Vicens01, Haddad02, LlanoSotelo02, Kaul02, Vicens02, Yu03b].

Regulation has been described in detail; for a review see [Schneider03a].

Reviews [Ganoza77, Garrett77, Brimacombe78, Azad79, Thompson83, Woese83, Moore88, Brimacombe88, Dahlberg89, Stern89, Leclerc90a, Craigen90, Srivastava91, Brimacombe91, Scheinman92, Brimacombe92, Laughrea94, Tuite94, Triman95, Triman94, Easterwood95, Mueller95, BrakierGingras95, Groisman95, Ehresmann95, Triman96a, Triman97, Moore97, Altman97, Nagano97, Triman98, Ashraf97, Lee01b, Recht01].

Citations: [Bremer71, Kossman71, Muto75, Reiness75, Lund76, Yamamoto76, Glaser77, Muto77, Muto77a, Morgan77, Chaney77, Morgan78, Young79, deBoer79, Nisen, CsordasToth79, Shen82, Aksoy84, Siehnel85, Steen86, Zacharias87, Szymkowiak87, Yamagishi87, Harvey88, Zacharias89, Harvey90, Mori90, Zacharias91, Orosz91, Lewicki93, Theissen93, Pardon94, Heinrich95, Pfeiffer97, Cangelosi97, Hraiky00, Yu70, Matsubara72, Noller72, Morris75, Lindahl75, Miller76, Dennis76, Kliber76, Gorelic76a, Sykes77, Hill77, Igarashi77, Vola77, Fox78, Vollenweider78, Krynetskii79, Palmer79, Budker, Sigmund82, Horie83, Berg87, Zenkova, vanKnippenberg88, Draper88, Friedrich88, Zenkovaa, Lasater89, Zenkova90, Zenkova90a, Zenkova91, Afonina91a, Gustafsson93, Muralikrishna94, Philippe94, Bogdanova95, Bessarab98, Polacek98, Mohanty00, Fuchs00, Mawn02, Amarantos02, Behrens03, Shimada02, Mahara03a]

Map Position: [3,939,831 -> 3,941,372] (84.92 centisomes)
Length: 1542 bp

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Not in pathways:
rRNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine → rRNA containing N6,N6-dimethyladenine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine

Reactions known to produce the compound:

tRNA processing :
a tRNA precursor with a 5' extension and a short 3' extension + H2O → a tRNA precursor with a short 3' extension + a single-stranded RNA
a tRNA precursor with a 5' extension + H2O → an uncharged tRNA + a single-stranded RNA

Not in pathways:
an mRNA + H2O → a single-stranded RNA + a single-stranded RNA
an mRNA + H2O → a single-stranded RNA + a single-stranded RNA
RNase E degradation substrate mRNA + n H2O → n a single-stranded RNA
YhaV endonuclease degradation substrate rRNA + H2O → 2 a single-stranded RNA
YhaV endonuclease degradation substrate mRNA + H2O → 2 a single-stranded RNA
RNase III mRNA processing substrate + 2 H2O → RNase III processing product mRNA + 2 a single-stranded RNA
23S rRNA[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] → 2 a single-stranded RNA[periplasmic space]
an mRNA[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] → 2 a single-stranded RNA[periplasmic space]
RNase G degradation substrate mRNA + H2O → 2 a single-stranded RNA
9S rRNA + 2 H2O → 5S rRNA + 2 a single-stranded RNA
RNase E mRNA processing substrate + n H2O → RNase E processing product mRNA + n a single-stranded RNA

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
a single-stranded RNA + phosphate ↔ a single-stranded RNA + a nucleoside diphosphate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
rRNA[periplasmic space] = 2 a single-stranded RNA[periplasmic space]


rRNA[periplasmic space] = 2 a single-stranded RNA[periplasmic space]

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0012279 , CGSC:187 , EchoBASE:EB4249 , EcoGene:EG30086 , EcoliWiki:b3756 , OU-Microarray:b3756 , PortEco:rrsC , RegulonDB:EG30086

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006412 - translation
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm
GO:0022627 - cytosolic small ribosomal subunit

MultiFun Terms: cell structure ribosomes
information transfer protein related translation
information transfer RNA related rRNA, stable RNA


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3756 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG30086.


References

Abdurashidova: Abdurashidova GG, Nargizian MG, Rudenko NV, Turchinskii MF, Budovskii EI "[Contacts of ribosomal proteins with tRNAPhe and 16S RNA in analogs of the 30S initiation complex]." Mol Biol (Mosk) 19(2);553-7. PMID: 2582234

Afonina: Afonina EI, Gaida GZ, Stel'mashchuk VIa, Chichkova NV, Bogdanov AA "[Ribosomes with unique breaks in 16S RNA: isolation and biological activity]." Mol Biol (Mosk) 22(2);446-53. PMID: 2839766

Afonina91: Afonina E, Chichkova N, Bogdanova S, Bogdanov A (1991). "30S ribosomal subunits with fragmented 16S RNA: a new approach for structure and function study of ribosomes." Biochimie 73(6);777-87. PMID: 1662543

Afonina91a: Afonina EI, Chichkova NV, Bogdanov AA (1991). "RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions in 30 S ribosomal subunits. Association of 16 S rRNA fragments in the presence of ribosomal proteins." FEBS Lett 283(2);251-4. PMID: 1646122

Agrawal92: Agrawal RK, De A, Burma DP (1992). "Mechanism of ribosomal subunit association: oligodeoxynucleotides as probes." Indian J Biochem Biophys 29(2);148-53. PMID: 1398707

Aksoy84: Aksoy S, Squires CL, Squires C (1984). "Evidence for antitermination in Escherichia coli RRNA transcription." J Bacteriol 159(1);260-4. PMID: 6330033

Alexander94a: Alexander RW, Muralikrishna P, Cooperman BS (1994). "Ribosomal components neighboring the conserved 518-533 loop of 16S rRNA in 30S subunits." Biochemistry 33(40);12109-18. PMID: 7918432

Allen89a: Allen PN, Noller HF (1989). "Mutations in ribosomal proteins S4 and S12 influence the higher order structure of 16 S ribosomal RNA." J Mol Biol 208(3);457-68. PMID: 2477554

Allen91: Allen PN, Noller HF (1991). "A single base substitution in 16S ribosomal RNA suppresses streptomycin dependence and increases the frequency of translational errors." Cell 66(1);141-8. PMID: 2070415

Allmang94: Allmang C, Mougel M, Westhof E, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C (1994). "Role of conserved nucleotides in building the 16S rRNA binding site of E. coli ribosomal protein S8." Nucleic Acids Res 22(18);3708-14. PMID: 7937081

Almehdi91: Almehdi M, Yoo YS, Schaup HW (1991). "Probing the function of conserved RNA structures in the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes." Nucleic Acids Res 19(24);6895-903. PMID: 1662366

Altman97: Altman RB, Abernethy NF, Chen RO (1997). "Standardized representations of the literature: combining diverse sources of ribosomal data." Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol 5;15-24. PMID: 9322010

Amarantos02: Amarantos I, Zarkadis IK, Kalpaxis DL (2002). "The identification of spermine binding sites in 16S rRNA allows interpretation of the spermine effect on ribosomal 30S subunit functions." Nucleic Acids Res 30(13);2832-43. PMID: 12087167

Amons74: Amons R, Moller W, Schiltz E, Reinbolt J (1974). "Studies on the binding sites of protein S4 to 16S RNA in Escherichia coli ribosomes." FEBS Lett 41(1);135-8. PMID: 4605167

Andersen78: Andersen O (1978). "Stability and maturation of E. coli ribosomal RNA." Microbios 21(83);41-6. PMID: 375034

Arkov98: Arkov AL, Freistroffer DV, Ehrenberg M, Murgola EJ (1998). "Mutations in RNAs of both ribosomal subunits cause defects in translation termination." EMBO J 17(5);1507-14. PMID: 9482747

Asai99: Asai T, Zaporojets D, Squires C, Squires CL (1999). "An Escherichia coli strain with all chromosomal rRNA operons inactivated: complete exchange of rRNA genes between bacteria." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(5);1971-6. PMID: 10051579

Asai99a: Asai T, Condon C, Voulgaris J, Zaporojets D, Shen B, Al-Omar M, Squires C, Squires CL (1999). "Construction and initial characterization of Escherichia coli strains with few or no intact chromosomal rRNA operons." J Bacteriol 181(12);3803-9. PMID: 10368156

Ashraf97: Ashraf SS, Guenther R, Ye W, Lee Y, Malkiewicz A, Agris PF (1997). "Ribosomal binding of modified tRNA anticodons related to thermal stability." Nucleic Acids Symp Ser NIL(36);58-60. PMID: 9478206

Atmadja85: Atmadja J, Brimacombe R, Blocker H, Frank R (1985). "Investigation of the tertiary folding of Escherichia coli 16S RNA by in situ intra-RNA cross-linking within 30S ribosomal subunits." Nucleic Acids Res 13(19);6919-36. PMID: 2997731

Atmadja86: Atmadja J, Stiege W, Zobawa M, Greuer B, Osswald M, Brimacombe R (1986). "The tertiary folding of Escherichia coli 16S RNA, as studied by in situ intra-RNA cross-linking of 30S ribosomal subunits with bis-(2-chloroethyl)-methylamine." Nucleic Acids Res 14(2);659-73. PMID: 2418415

Azad79: Azad AA (1979). "Intermolecular base-paired interaction between complementary sequences present near the 3' ends of 5S rRNA and 18S (16S) rRNA might be involved in the reversible association of ribosomal subunits." Nucleic Acids Res 7(7);1913-29. PMID: 94160

Baan76: Baan RA, Duijfjes JJ, van Leerdam E, van Knippenberg PH, Bosch L (1976). "Specific in situ cleavage of 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli interferes with the function of initiation factor IF-1." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73(3);702-6. PMID: 768982

Baan77: Baan RA, Hilbers CW, Van Charldorp R, Van Leerdam E, Van Knippenberg PH, Bosch L (1977). "High-resolution proton magnetic resonance study of the secondary structure of the 3'-terminal 49-nucleotide fragment of 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74(3);1028-31. PMID: 322143

Babkina88: Babkina GT, Jonak J, Karpova GG, Knorre DG, Rychlik I, Vladimirov SN (1988). "Affinity labeling at the A-site of Escherichia coli ribosomes by a non-hydrolyzable gamma-amide analog of GTP." Biochimie 70(5);597-603. PMID: 3139078

Bakin94: Bakin A, Kowalak JA, McCloskey JA, Ofengand J (1994). "The single pseudouridine residue in Escherichia coli 16S RNA is located at position 516." Nucleic Acids Res 22(18);3681-4. PMID: 7524026

Baranov97: Baranov PV, Dokudovskaya SS, Oretskaya TS, Dontsova OA, Bogdanov AA, Brimacombe R (1997). "A new technique for the characterization of long-range tertiary contacts in large RNA molecules: insertion of a photolabel at a selected position in 16S rRNA within the Escherichia coli ribosome." Nucleic Acids Res 25(12);2266-73. PMID: 9171076

Barritault77: Barritault D, Hayes DH (1977). "Localisation of part of the binding sites of 30S ribosomal proteins S4 and S20 in a small uninterrupted fragment of 16S RNA." Biochimie 59(5-6);463-72. PMID: 407946

Baudin87: Baudin F, Ehresmann C, Romby P, Mougel M, Colin J, Lempereur L, Bachellerie JP, Ebel JP, Ehresmann B (1987). "Higher-order structure of domain III in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA, 30S subunit and 70S ribosome." Biochimie 69(10);1081-96. PMID: 3126826

Baudin89: Baudin F, Mougel M, Romby P, Eyermann F, Ebel JP, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C (1989). "Probing the phosphates of the Escherichia coli ribosomal 16S RNA in its naked form, in the 30S subunit, and in the 70S ribosome." Biochemistry 28(14);5847-55. PMID: 2476177

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Behrens03: Behrens S, Fuchs BM, Mueller F, Amann R (2003). "Is the in situ accessibility of the 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli for Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide probes predicted by a three-dimensional structure model of the 30S ribosomal subunit?." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(8);4935-41. PMID: 12902289

Belanger02: Belanger F, Leger M, Saraiya AA, Cunningham PR, Brakier-Gingras L (2002). "Functional studies of the 900 tetraloop capping helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA." J Mol Biol 320(5);979-89. PMID: 12126619

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Berg87: Berg KL, Squires CL, Squires C (1987). "In vivo translation of a region within the rrnB 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(4);1691-701. PMID: 2435709

Besancon99: Besancon W, Wagner R (1999). "Characterization of transient RNA-RNA interactions important for the facilitated structure formation of bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA." Nucleic Acids Res 27(22);4353-62. PMID: 10536142

Bessarab98: Bessarab DA, Kaberdin VR, Wei CL, Liou GG, Lin-Chao S (1998). "RNA components of Escherichia coli degradosome: evidence for rRNA decay." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(6);3157-61. PMID: 9501232

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Bhangu94: Bhangu R, Juzumiene D, Wollenzien P (1994). "Arrangement of messenger RNA on Escherichia coli ribosomes with respect to 10 16S rRNA cross-linking sites." Biochemistry 33(10);3063-70. PMID: 8130220

Bilgin90: Bilgin N, Richter AA, Ehrenberg M, Dahlberg AE, Kurland CG (1990). "Ribosomal RNA and protein mutants resistant to spectinomycin." EMBO J 9(3);735-9. PMID: 2138078

Blanchard98: Blanchard SC, Fourmy D, Eason RG, Puglisi JD (1998). "rRNA chemical groups required for aminoglycoside binding." Biochemistry 37(21);7716-24. PMID: 9601031

Bogdanov78: Bogdanov AA, Zimmermann RA, Wang CC, Ford NC (1978). "Conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA induced by 30S ribosomal subunit proteins from Escherichia coli." Science 202(4371);999-1001. PMID: 362531

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Other References Related to Gene Regulation

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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