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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: K+ transporting ATPase - KdpF subunit



Gene: kdpF Accession Numbers: G0-10439 (EcoCyc), b4513, ECK0687

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of: K+ transporting ATPase (extended summary available)

Gene Citations: [Nakashima93, Asha93, Hesse84]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [727,955 <- 728,044] (15.69 centisomes)
Length: 90 bp / 29 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 3.072 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0285034 , EchoBASE:EB2047 , EcoGene:EG12126 , EcoliWiki:b4513 , PortEco:kdpF , RefSeq:YP_588443 , RegulonDB:G0-10439 , String:511145.b4513 , UniProt:P36937

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011726 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF09604

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0043462 - regulation of ATPase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Gassel99]
GO:0071805 - potassium ion transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment [Altendorf98, GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0008556 - potassium-transporting ATPase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Altendorf98]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The P-type ATPase (P-ATPase) Superfamily

Essentiality data for kdpF knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Subunit of: K+ transporting ATPase

Subunit composition of K+ transporting ATPase = [KdpF][KdpA][KdpB][KdpC]
         K+ transporting ATPase - KdpF subunit = KdpF
         K+ transporting ATPase - K+ channel forming subunit = KdpA
         K+ transporting ATPase - ATP binding subunit = KdpB
         K+ transporting ATPase - KdpC subunit = KdpC

Summary:
The kdpFABC genes encode an ATP-dependent high affinity P-Type ATPase potassium ion transporter [Siebers88, Siebers89]. The transporter has a high affinity and substrate specificity for potassium ion (Km= 10 μM). It is activated by magnesium ion with an affinity constant of 80 μM [Siebers88]. ATP-driven potassium ion transport has been observed when the Kdp complex is reconstituted in vesicles [Buurman95].

The kdp genes are expressed when growth is limited by the availability of potassium ion [Siebers88]. A decline in extracellular K+ concentration stimulates expression of kdpFABC and kdpFABC expression decreases with increasing extracellular K+ concentration [Laermann13]. The kdp genes are also induced upon exposure to methylglyoxal where they probably act to counter the loss of potassium that occurs due to activation of the Kef potassium efflux systems as a result of methylglyoxal detoxification [Ozyamak13]

Kdp is unusual among P- type ATPases in having three subunits: one for energy coupling (KdpB), one for substrate binding and transport (KdpA), and one for associating the first two subunits together (KdpC) [Buurman95]. The largest subunit, KdpB, is the homologue of other P-type ATPases. Neither of the other two subunits, KdpA or KdpC, has homologues in other P-type ATPases. Mutation experiments have shown that all three subunits are required for normal Kdp activity [Buurman95]. KdpA is highly hydrophobic with many predicted membrane-spanning segments [Buurman95]. The fact that most mutants displaying lower affinity for potassium ion had mutations that altered KdpA implies that KdpA has a major role in determining affinity for potassium ion [Buurman95]. A truncated version of KdpA with only the N-terminal 135 amino acids (which contains two transmembrane segments) is able to rescue a K+ transporter mutant in media with low K+ concentration even without KdpA and KdpB. This is predicted to occur in response to the membrane potential [Sardesai01]. KdpC is predicted to have only a single membrane-spanning segment [Buurman95]. Complementation experiments with complete and truncated KdpC proteins and hybrids as well as sequence analysis of KdpC proteins have identified 4 major parts to the protein. There are two highly conserved regions (regions 2 and 4) and two highly variable regions (1 and 3). Region 1, the N-terminal region, is predicted to be the membrane spanning segment [Gassel01]. Mutational analysis also showed that KdpC is involved in linking KdpA and KdpB together, serving to assemble and stabilize the KdpFABC complex [Gassel98]. A fourth gene on the same operon, kdpF, encodes a small non-essential polypeptide, which was shown by SDS-polyacrylamide gel analysis of the transporter complex to be associated with and stabilize the KdpFABC complex in vivo [Altendorf98, Gassel99].

Two other important potassium ion uptake systems in E. coli include Trk and Kup [Buurman95].

Review: [Greie07]


Enzymatic reaction of: K+ transporting ATPase

EC Number: 3.6.3.12

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
K+
2.0
[Gassel99, BRENDA14]
K+
10.0
[Siebers88, BRENDA14]


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Unit:

Notes:

History:
Peter D. Karp on Thu Jan 19, 2006:
Existence of this gene was inferred by analysis performed in the 2005 E. coli annotation update [Riley06 ].


References

Altendorf98: Altendorf K, Gassel M, Puppe W, Mollenkamp T, Zeeck A, Boddien C, Fendler K, Bamberg E, Drose S (1998). "Structure and function of the Kdp-ATPase of Escherichia coli." Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1998;643;137-46. PMID: 9789555

Asha93: Asha H, Gowrishankar J (1993). "Regulation of kdp operon expression in Escherichia coli: evidence against turgor as signal for transcriptional control." J Bacteriol 1993;175(14);4528-37. PMID: 8331081

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Buurman95: Buurman ET, Kim KT, Epstein W (1995). "Genetic evidence for two sequentially occupied K+ binding sites in the Kdp transport ATPase." J Biol Chem 1995;270(12);6678-85. PMID: 7896809

Gassel01: Gassel M, Altendorf K (2001). "Analysis of KdpC of the K(+)-transporting KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 268(6);1772-81. PMID: 11248697

Gassel98: Gassel M, Siebers A, Epstein W, Altendorf K (1998). "Assembly of the Kdp complex, the multi-subunit K+-transport ATPase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1998;1415(1);77-84. PMID: 9858692

Gassel99: Gassel M, Mollenkamp T, Puppe W, Altendorf K (1999). "The KdpF subunit is part of the K(+)-translocating Kdp complex of Escherichia coli and is responsible for stabilization of the complex in vitro." J Biol Chem 1999;274(53);37901-7. PMID: 10608856

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Greie07: Greie JC, Altendorf K (2007). "The K+-translocating KdpFABC complex from Escherichia coli: a P-type ATPase with unique features." J Bioenerg Biomembr 39(5-6);397-402. PMID: 18058005

Hesse84: Hesse JE, Wieczorek L, Altendorf K, Reicin AS, Dorus E, Epstein W (1984). "Sequence homology between two membrane transport ATPases, the Kdp-ATPase of Escherichia coli and the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81(15);4746-50. PMID: 6146979

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Laermann13: Laermann V, Cudic E, Kipschull K, Zimmann P, Altendorf K (2013). "The sensor kinase KdpD of Escherichia coli senses external K(+)." Mol Microbiol 88(6);1194-204. PMID: 23651428

Nakashima93: Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Kanamaru K, Mizuno T (1993). "Signal transduction between the two regulatory components involved in the regulation of the kdpABC operon in Escherichia coli: phosphorylation-dependent functioning of the positive regulator, KdpE." Mol Microbiol 1993;7(1);109-16. PMID: 8437514

Ozyamak13: Ozyamak E, de Almeida C, de Moura AP, Miller S, Booth IR (2013). "Integrated stress response of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal: transcriptional readthrough from the nemRA operon enhances protection through increased expression of glyoxalase I." Mol Microbiol. PMID: 23646895

Rhoads78: Rhoads DB, Laimins L, Epstein W (1978). "Functional organization of the kdp genes of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 135(2);445-52. PMID: 355227

Riley06: Riley M, Abe T, Arnaud MB, Berlyn MK, Blattner FR, Chaudhuri RR, Glasner JD, Horiuchi T, Keseler IM, Kosuge T, Mori H, Perna NT, Plunkett G, Rudd KE, Serres MH, Thomas GH, Thomson NR, Wishart D, Wanner BL (2006). "Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005." Nucleic Acids Res 34(1);1-9. PMID: 16397293

Sardesai01: Sardesai AA, Gowrishankar J (2001). "Improvement in K+-limited growth rate associated with expression of the N-terminal fragment of one subunit (KdpA) of the multisubunit Kdp transporter in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 183(11);3515-20. PMID: 11344160

Siebers88: Siebers A, Altendorf K (1988). "The K+-translocating Kdp-ATPase from Escherichia coli. Purification, enzymatic properties and production of complex- and subunit-specific antisera." Eur J Biochem 1988;178(1);131-40. PMID: 2849541

Siebers89: Siebers A, Altendorf K (1989). "Characterization of the phosphorylated intermediate of the K+-translocating Kdp-ATPase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1989;264(10);5831-8. PMID: 2522440

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Narayanan12: Narayanan A, Paul LN, Tomar S, Patil DN, Kumar P, Yernool DA (2012). "Structure-function studies of DNA binding domain of response regulator KdpE reveals equal affinity interactions at DNA half-sites." PLoS One 7(1);e30102. PMID: 22291906

Sugiura92: Sugiura A, Nakashima K, Tanaka K, Mizuno T (1992). "Clarification of the structural and functional features of the osmoregulated kdp operon of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1992;6(13);1769-76. PMID: 1630316


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Nov 24, 2014, biocyc14.