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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: D-glucuronate isomerase / D-galacturonate isomerase



Gene: uxaC Accession Numbers: G81 (EcoCyc), b3092, ECK3083

Synonyms: ygjY, ygjX, ygjZ

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
Uronate isomerase catalyzes the initial step of isomerization of the alduronic to the keturonic acid in the glucuronate and galacturonate degradation pathways.

Cofactor requirements of the enzyme are unclear; one of the earlier reports on purification of the enzyme states that Zn2+ inhibits the enzyme [Ashwell60], while a later report states that uronate isomerase is a metalloenzyme, with Zn2+ as the likely physiologically relevant cofactor [Linster04].

Tagaturonate and fructuronate act as inducers [Portalier80]; production of the enzyme is under catabolite repression [HugouvieuxCotte81].

Citations: [Portalier74]

Gene Citations: [MataGilsinger83, Nemoz76, HugouvieuxCotte82]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [3,241,351 <- 3,242,763] (69.86 centisomes)
Length: 1413 bp / 470 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 53.987 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 50.5 kD (experimental) [Ritzenthaler81 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010167 , CGSC:15 , EchoBASE:EB2593 , EcoGene:EG12737 , EcoliWiki:b3092 , ModBase:P0A8G3 , OU-Microarray:b3092 , PortEco:uxaC , PR:PRO_000024205 , Pride:P0A8G3 , Protein Model Portal:P0A8G3 , RefSeq:NP_417563 , RegulonDB:G81 , SMR:P0A8G3 , String:511145.b3092 , UniProt:P0A8G3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003766 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023177 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02614

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0019698 - D-galacturonate catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Ritzenthaler81]
GO:0042840 - D-glucuronate catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Novel73]
GO:0006064 - glucuronate catabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0008880 - glucuronate isomerase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, GOA01a, Novel73, Linster04]
GO:0016853 - isomerase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds

Essentiality data for uxaC knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 3]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 31-Jan-2008 by Keseler I , SRI International


Enzymatic reaction of: D-glucuronate isomerase

Synonyms: uronic acid isomerase, uronic isomerase, D-glucuronate ketol-isomerase

EC Number: 5.3.1.12

aldehydo-D-glucuronate <=> D-fructuronate

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction of enzyme catalysis.

This reaction is reversible. [Ashwell60]

In Pathways: superpathway of hexuronide and hexuronate degradation , superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation , β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation

Summary:
The equilibrium of the reversible reaction depends on the buffer conditions; in phosphate buffer, it lies at about 45% fructuronate [Ashwell60].

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: Zn2+ [Linster04]

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): Cu2+ [Ashwell60] , Zn2+ [Ashwell60] , p-chloromercuribenzoate [Ashwell60] , EDTA [Ashwell60, Linster04] , o-phenanthroline [Ashwell60] , 2-mercaptoethanol [Ashwell60] , L-cysteine [Ashwell60] , NaCN [Ashwell60]

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
aldehydo-D-glucuronate
290.0
[Linster04]

pH(opt): 8.5 [Ashwell60]


Enzymatic reaction of: D-galacturonate isomerase

Synonyms: uronic acid isomerase, uronic isomerase

EC Number: 5.3.1.12

aldehydo-D-galacturonate <=> D-tagaturonate

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction of enzyme catalysis.

This reaction is reversible. [Ashwell60]

In Pathways: superpathway of hexuronide and hexuronate degradation , D-galacturonate degradation I

Summary:
The equilibrium of the reversible reaction depends on the buffer conditions; in borate buffer, it lies at about 60% tagaturonate [Takagi59].

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): Cu2+ [Ashwell60] , Zn2+ [Ashwell60] , p-chloromercuribenzoate [Ashwell60, Takagi59] , EDTA [Ashwell60] , o-phenanthroline [Ashwell60] , NaCN [Ashwell60] , 2-mercaptoethanol [Ashwell60] , L-cysteine [Ashwell60]

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
D-tagaturonate
750.0
[Ashwell60]
aldehydo-D-galacturonate
1650.0
[Ashwell60]

pH(opt): 8.0 [Ashwell60]


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3092 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene G81.


References

Ashwell60: Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid isomerase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1960;235(6):1559-1565. PMID: 13794771

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

HugouvieuxCotte81: Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Robert-Baudouy J (1981). "Isolation of fusions between the lac genes and several genes of the exu regulon: analysis of their regulation, determination of the transcription direction of the uxaC-uxaA operon, in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 182(2);279-87. PMID: 7026975

HugouvieuxCotte82: Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Robert-Baudouy J (1982). "Determination of the transcription direction of the exuT gene in Escherichia coli K-12: divergent transcription of the exuT-uxaCA operons." J Bacteriol 151(1);480-4. PMID: 6282811

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Linster04: Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E (2004). "A spectrophotometric assay of D-glucuronate based on Escherichia coli uronate isomerase and mannonate dehydrogenase." Protein Expr Purif 37(2);352-60. PMID: 15358357

MataGilsinger83: Mata-Gilsinger M, Ritzenthaler P (1983). "Physical mapping of the exuT and uxaC operators by use of exu plasmids and generation of deletion mutants in vitro." J Bacteriol 155(3);973-82. PMID: 6309752

Nemoz76: Nemoz G, Robert-Baudouy J, Stoeber F (1976). "Physiological and genetic regulation of the aldohexuronate transport system in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1976;127(2);706-18. PMID: 783117

Novel73: Novel G, Stoeber F (1973). "[Individuality of D glucuronate-ketol isomerase from K 12 Escherichia coli]." Biochimie 55(9);1057-70. PMID: 4594308

Portalier74: Portalier RC, Robert-Baudouy JM, Nemoz GM (1974). "[Studies of mutations in the uronic isomerase and altronic oxidoreductase structural genes of Escherichia coli K 12 (author's transl)]." Mol Gen Genet 128(4);301-19. PMID: 4594010

Portalier80: Portalier R, Robert-Baudouy J, Stoeber F (1980). "Regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 hexuronate system genes: exu regulon." J Bacteriol 143(3);1095-107. PMID: 6997263

Ritzenthaler81: Ritzenthaler P, Mata-Gilsinger M, Stoeber F (1981). "Molecular cloning of Escherichia coli K-12 hexuronate system genes: exu region." J Bacteriol 145(1);181-90. PMID: 6450743

Takagi59: Takagi Y, Kanda M, Nakata Y (1959). "Studies on a D-galacturonic acid isomerase." Biochim Biophys Acta 31(1);264-5. PMID: 13628636

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Constantinidou06: Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Griffiths L, Patel MD, Penn CW, Cole JA, Overton TW (2006). "A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth." J Biol Chem 281(8);4802-15. PMID: 16377617

Huerta03: Huerta AM, Collado-Vides J (2003). "Sigma70 promoters in Escherichia coli: specific transcription in dense regions of overlapping promoter-like signals." J Mol Biol 333(2);261-78. PMID: 14529615

MataGilsinger83a: Mata-Gilsinger M, Ritzenthaler P, Blanco C (1983). "Characterization of the operator sites of the exu regulon in Escherichia coli K-12 by operator-constitutive mutations and repressor titration." Genetics 1983;105(4);829-42. PMID: 6357945

MedinaRivera11: Medina-Rivera A, Abreu-Goodger C, Thomas-Chollier M, Salgado H, Collado-Vides J, van Helden J (2011). "Theoretical and empirical quality assessment of transcription factor-binding motifs." Nucleic Acids Res 39(3);808-24. PMID: 20923783

Rodionov00: Rodionov DA, Mironov AA, Rakhmaninova AB, Gelfand MS (2000). "Transcriptional regulation of transport and utilization systems for hexuronides, hexuronates and hexonates in gamma purple bacteria." Mol Microbiol 38(4);673-83. PMID: 11115104

Yamamoto08: Yamamoto K, Matsumoto F, Oshima T, Fujita N, Ogasawara N, Ishihama A (2008). "Anaerobic regulation of citrate fermentation by CitAB in Escherichia coli." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72(11);3011-4. PMID: 18997424


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 22, 2014, biocyc11.