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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Growth Medium: M9 medium with 1% glycerol

M9 medium is a defined, minimal medium for E. coli. It is one of the simplest media in common use, providing a bare-bones complement of phosphorous, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is the medium of choice for microscopy of E. coli as it generates significantly less autofluorescence than other commonly used media such as LB [Xiao07].

This entry describes M9 medium with 1% glycerol as the carbon source. M9 with 1% glycerol has been used to evaluate conditionally essential genes [Joyce06].

Citations: [Maniatis82]

Recipe Substances:
Substances Concentration Role
disodium phosphate heptahydrate 12.8 g/l Source of P
glycerol 10 g/l Source of C
monopotassium phosphate 3 g/l Source of P
ammonium chloride 1 g/l Source of N
sodium chloride 0.5 g/l  
magnesium sulfate 2 mM Source of S
Constituents Concentration
glycerol 108.58 mM
Na+ 103.7 mM
phosphate 69.454 mM
chloride 27.25 mM
K+ 21.883 mM
ammonium 18.695 mM
Mg2+ 2 mM
sulfate 2 mM

pH: 7.2

Osmolarity (approximate, computed from constituents): 0.35 Osm/L

Wildtype growth observations:

T (°C) O2 Growth?
37 Aerobic Yes

113 single gene knockouts exhibit no growth (aerobic):

argA , argE , argH , aroA , aroB , aroC , aroE , atpA , atpB , atpC , atpF , atpG , atpH , carA , carB , cra , crr , cysA , cysB , cysC , cysD , cysE , cysH , cysI , cysJ , cysK , cysN , cysP , cysQ , cysU , fes , folB , glnA , glpD , glpK , gltA , glyA , guaA , guaB , hisA (T=37°C) [Joyce06] + 73 more...
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3705 single gene knockouts exhibit growth (aerobic):

nanS (T=37°C) [Steenbergen09, Comment 1],
aaeA , aaeB , aaeR , aaeX , aas , aat , abgA , abgB , abgR , abgT , abpA , abpB , abrB , aceA , aceB , aceE , aceF , aceK , ackA , acnA , acnB , acpH , acpT , acrA , acrB , acrD , acrE , acrF , acrR , acrZ , acs , actP , ada , add , adeD , adeP , adeQ , adhE , adhP (T=37°C) [Joyce06, Comment 2] + 3665 more...
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Genes with inconsistent growth observations:

Knockout Growth? T (°C) O2 Growth Observations
nanSYes 37 Aerobic
Yes [Steenbergen09, Comment 1]
No [Joyce06]

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Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Maniatis82: Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., Sambrook, J. (1982). "Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual." Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual (CSHL Press).

Steenbergen09: Steenbergen SM, Jirik JL, Vimr ER (2009). "YjhS (NanS) is required for Escherichia coli to grow on 9-O-acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid." J Bacteriol 191(22):7134-9. PMID: 19749043

Xiao07: Xiao, J, Elf, J, et al (2007). "Imaging gene expression in living cells at the single-molecule level." Single Molecules: A Laboratory Manual (CSHL Press).

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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