Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Growth Medium: MOPS medium with 2% glucose

The goals for this medium were to find a convenient and well defined composition that allowed varying all of the elements independently to facilitate isotopic labelling. This required using much less phosphate than in older media, which served roles of pH buffering and chelation of metals like Fe2+. For buffering, MOPS was used instead, with some Tricine added to help chelate Fe2+.

E. coli can use MOPS as a sulfur source if not other sulfur source is added. However, sulfate easily outcompetes MOPS if both are present.

To increase ionic strength and thus optimize the growth rate, NaCl was added. However, it is probably the case that KCl would work just as well, which would allow completely eliminating Na+ from this medium.

Citations: [Neidhardt74]

Recipe Substances:
Substances Concentration Role
β-D-glucopyranose 20 g/l Source of C
3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonate 40 mM pH Buffer
ammonium chloride 9.5 mM Source of N
ammonium heptamolybdate 3 nM  
borate 400 nM  
calcium chloride 0.5 µM  
cobalt chloride 30.0 nM  
copper sulfate 10 nM  
dipotassium phosphate 1.32 mM Source of P
iron sulfate 10 µM  
manganese chloride 80 nM  
MgCl2 528 µM  
potassium sulfate 276 µM Source of S
sodium chloride 50 mM  
tricine 4 mM pH Buffer
zinc sulfate 10 nM  
Constituents Concentration
β-D-glucopyranose 111.01 mM
chloride 60.557 mM
Na+ 50 mM
3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonate 40 mM
borate 24.732 mM
ammonium 9.5 mM
tricine 4 mM
K+ 3.192 mM
phosphate 1.32 mM
Mg2+ 528 µM
sulfate 286.02 µM
Fe2+ 10 µM
Ca2+ 500 nM
Mn2+ 80 nM
Co2+ 30.0 nM
Zn2+ 10 nM
Cu2+ 10 nM
heptamolybdate 3 nM

pH: 7.2

Osmolarity (approximate, computed from constituents): 0.31 Osm/L

Wildtype growth observations:

T (°C) O2 Growth?
37 Aerobic Yes


Neidhardt74: Neidhardt FC, Bloch PL, Smith DF (1974). "Culture medium for enterobacteria." J Bacteriol 119(3);736-47. PMID: 4604283

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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