If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Alanine Biosynthesis|
Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.
At least three pathways (alanine biosynthesis I, alanine biosynthesis II, and alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. The specific contribution of alanine biosynthesis I to overall alanine production in the cell remains unclear, given that it consists of a series of reversible reactions involved in other physiological processes, and alanine auxotrophs based on this pathway have not been generated.
Superpathways: superpathway of alanine biosynthesis
LeePeng79: Lee-Peng FC, Hermodson MA, Kohlhaw GB (1979). "Transaminase B from Escherichia coli: quaternary structure, amino-terminal sequence, substrate specificity, and absence of a separate valine-alpha-ketoglutarate activity." J Bacteriol 1979;139(2);339-45. PMID: 378964
Berg88: Berg CM, Wang MD, Vartak NB, Liu L (1988). "Acquisition of new metabolic capabilities: multicopy suppression by cloned transaminase genes in Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 65(2);195-202. PMID: 3044925
Cho03: Cho BK, Cho HJ, Park SH, Yun H, Kim BG (2003). "Simultaneous synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-amino acids and (R)-amines using coupled transaminase reactions." Biotechnol Bioeng 81(7);783-9. PMID: 12557311
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Falkinham77: Falkinham JO (1977). "Escherichia coli K-12 mutant with alternate requirements for vitamin B6 or branched-chain amino acids and lacking transaminase C activity." J Bacteriol 130(1);566-8. PMID: 323243
Goto03: Goto M, Miyahara I, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, Hirotsu K (2003). "Crystal structures of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase complexed with glutamate and glutarate: true reaction intermediate and double substrate recognition of the enzyme." Biochemistry 42(13);3725-33. PMID: 12667063
Inoue88: Inoue K, Kuramitsu S, Aki K, Watanabe Y, Takagi T, Nishigai M, Ikai A, Kagamiyama H (1988). "Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: overproduction and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1988;104(5);777-84. PMID: 3069843
Ju11: Ju J, Xu S, Furukawa Y, Zhang Y, Misono H, Minamino T, Namba K, Zhao B, Ohnishi K (2011). "Correlation between catalytic activity and monomer-dimer equilibrium of bacterial alanine racemases." J Biochem 149(1);83-9. PMID: 20971724
Kuramitsu85a: Kuramitsu S, Ogawa T, Ogawa H, Kagamiyama H (1985). "Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence of the ilvE gene and the deduced amino acid sequence." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1985;97(4);993-9. PMID: 3897211
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