Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: L-alanine biosynthesis I
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-alanine biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for L-alanine biosynthesis I

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-alanine Biosynthesis

Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.

At least three pathways ( L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II, and L-alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. The specific contribution of alanine biosynthesis I to overall alanine production in the cell remains unclear, given that it consists of a series of reversible reactions involved in other physiological processes, and alanine auxotrophs based on this pathway have not been generated.

Superpathways: superpathway of L-alanine biosynthesis

Variants: L-alanine biosynthesis II, L-alanine biosynthesis III

Created 28-Apr-1994 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory
Last-Curated 12-Dec-2006 by Shearer A, SRI International


Lambert72: Lambert MP, Neuhaus FC (1972). "Mechanism of D-cycloserine action: alanine racemase from Escherichia coli W." J Bacteriol 110(3);978-87. PMID: 4555420

LeePeng79: Lee-Peng FC, Hermodson MA, Kohlhaw GB (1979). "Transaminase B from Escherichia coli: quaternary structure, amino-terminal sequence, substrate specificity, and absence of a separate valine-alpha-ketoglutarate activity." J Bacteriol 1979;139(2);339-45. PMID: 378964

McGilvray74: McGilvray D, Umbarger HE (1974). "Regulation of transaminase C synthesis in Escherichia coli: conditional leucine auxotrophy." J Bacteriol 120(2);715-23. PMID: 4616947

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Adelberg53: Adelberg EA, Umbarger HE (1953). "Isoleucine and valine metabolism in Escherichia coli. V. alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid accumulation." J Biol Chem 205(1);475-82. PMID: 13117924

Berg88: Berg CM, Wang MD, Vartak NB, Liu L (1988). "Acquisition of new metabolic capabilities: multicopy suppression by cloned transaminase genes in Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 65(2);195-202. PMID: 3044925

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Cho03: Cho BK, Cho HJ, Park SH, Yun H, Kim BG (2003). "Simultaneous synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-amino acids and (R)-amines using coupled transaminase reactions." Biotechnol Bioeng 81(7);783-9. PMID: 12557311

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Falkinham77: Falkinham JO (1977). "Escherichia coli K-12 mutant with alternate requirements for vitamin B6 or branched-chain amino acids and lacking transaminase C activity." J Bacteriol 130(1);566-8. PMID: 323243

Falkinham79: Falkinham JO (1979). "Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 176(1);147-9. PMID: 396446

Gelfand77: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Goto03: Goto M, Miyahara I, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, Hirotsu K (2003). "Crystal structures of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase complexed with glutamate and glutarate: true reaction intermediate and double substrate recognition of the enzyme." Biochemistry 42(13);3725-33. PMID: 12667063

Holtzclaw77: Holtzclaw WD, Chapman LF (1977). "A new assay for transaminase C." Anal Biochem 83(1);162-7. PMID: 411384

Inoue88: Inoue K, Kuramitsu S, Aki K, Watanabe Y, Takagi T, Nishigai M, Ikai A, Kagamiyama H (1988). "Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: overproduction and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1988;104(5);777-84. PMID: 3069843

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jamindar10: Jamindar D, Gutheil WG (2010). "A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for Marfey's derivatives of L-Ala, D-Ala, and D-Ala-D-Ala: application to the in vivo confirmation of alanine racemase as the target of cycloserine in Escherichia coli." Anal Biochem 396(1);1-7. PMID: 19748470

Ju05: Ju J, Misono H, Ohnishi K (2005). "Directed evolution of bacterial alanine racemases with higher expression level." J Biosci Bioeng 100(3);246-54. PMID: 16243272

Ju11: Ju J, Xu S, Furukawa Y, Zhang Y, Misono H, Minamino T, Namba K, Zhao B, Ohnishi K (2011). "Correlation between catalytic activity and monomer-dimer equilibrium of bacterial alanine racemases." J Biochem 149(1);83-9. PMID: 20971724

Kim03a: Kim MG, Strych U, Krause K, Benedik M, Kohn H (2003). "N(2)-substituted D,L-cycloserine derivatives: synthesis and evaluation as alanine racemase inhibitors." J Antibiot (Tokyo) 56(2);160-8. PMID: 12715876

Kim10: Kim SH, Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2010). "Genetics and regulation of the major enzymes of alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 192(20);5304-11. PMID: 20729367

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Wed Nov 25, 2015, BIOCYC14B.