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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: alanine biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Amino Acids Biosynthesis Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis Alanine Biosynthesis

Summary:
Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.

At least three pathways (alanine biosynthesis I, alanine biosynthesis II, and alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. The specific contribution of alanine biosynthesis I to overall alanine production in the cell remains unclear, given that it consists of a series of reversible reactions involved in other physiological processes, and alanine auxotrophs based on this pathway have not been generated.

Superpathways: superpathway of alanine biosynthesis

Variants: alanine biosynthesis II , alanine biosynthesis III

Credits:
Created 28-Apr-1994 by Riley M , Marine Biological Laboratory
Last-Curated ? 12-Dec-2006 by Shearer A , SRI International


References

Lambert72: Lambert MP, Neuhaus FC (1972). "Mechanism of D-cycloserine action: alanine racemase from Escherichia coli W." J Bacteriol 110(3);978-87. PMID: 4555420

LeePeng79: Lee-Peng FC, Hermodson MA, Kohlhaw GB (1979). "Transaminase B from Escherichia coli: quaternary structure, amino-terminal sequence, substrate specificity, and absence of a separate valine-alpha-ketoglutarate activity." J Bacteriol 1979;139(2);339-45. PMID: 378964

McGilvray74: McGilvray D, Umbarger HE (1974). "Regulation of transaminase C synthesis in Escherichia coli: conditional leucine auxotrophy." J Bacteriol 120(2);715-23. PMID: 4616947

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Adelberg53: Adelberg EA, Umbarger HE (1953). "Isoleucine and valine metabolism in Escherichia coli. V. alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid accumulation." J Biol Chem 205(1);475-82. PMID: 13117924

Berg88: Berg CM, Wang MD, Vartak NB, Liu L (1988). "Acquisition of new metabolic capabilities: multicopy suppression by cloned transaminase genes in Escherichia coli K-12." Gene 65(2);195-202. PMID: 3044925

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Cho03: Cho BK, Cho HJ, Park SH, Yun H, Kim BG (2003). "Simultaneous synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-amino acids and (R)-amines using coupled transaminase reactions." Biotechnol Bioeng 81(7);783-9. PMID: 12557311

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Falkinham77: Falkinham JO (1977). "Escherichia coli K-12 mutant with alternate requirements for vitamin B6 or branched-chain amino acids and lacking transaminase C activity." J Bacteriol 130(1);566-8. PMID: 323243

Falkinham79: Falkinham JO (1979). "Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 176(1);147-9. PMID: 396446

Gelfand77: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Goto03: Goto M, Miyahara I, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, Hirotsu K (2003). "Crystal structures of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase complexed with glutamate and glutarate: true reaction intermediate and double substrate recognition of the enzyme." Biochemistry 42(13);3725-33. PMID: 12667063

Holtzclaw77: Holtzclaw WD, Chapman LF (1977). "A new assay for transaminase C." Anal Biochem 83(1);162-7. PMID: 411384

Inoue88: Inoue K, Kuramitsu S, Aki K, Watanabe Y, Takagi T, Nishigai M, Ikai A, Kagamiyama H (1988). "Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: overproduction and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1988;104(5);777-84. PMID: 3069843

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Ju11: Ju J, Xu S, Furukawa Y, Zhang Y, Misono H, Minamino T, Namba K, Zhao B, Ohnishi K (2011). "Correlation between catalytic activity and monomer-dimer equilibrium of bacterial alanine racemases." J Biochem 149(1);83-9. PMID: 20971724

Kim10: Kim SH, Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2010). "Genetics and regulation of the major enzymes of alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 192(20);5304-11. PMID: 20729367

Kline77: Kline EL, Manross DN, Warwick ML (1977). "Multivalent regulation of isoleucine-valine transaminase in an Escherichia coli K-12 ilvA deletion strain." J Bacteriol 130(2);951-3. PMID: 400801

Kuramitsu85a: Kuramitsu S, Ogawa T, Ogawa H, Kagamiyama H (1985). "Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence of the ilvE gene and the deduced amino acid sequence." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1985;97(4);993-9. PMID: 3897211

Lambert72a: Lambert MP, Neuhaus FC (1972). "Factors affecting the level of alanine racemase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 109(3);1156-61. PMID: 4551748

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Fri Dec 19, 2014, biocyc14.