If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amines and Polyamines Biosynthesis|
E. coli makes four polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, cadaverine, and aminopropylcadaverine, the syntheses of which are shown both here and in superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis I. In the absence of exogenous arginine, the principal flow to putrescine and hence spermidine is via ornithine decarboxylase. In the presence of exogenous arginine, however, when ornithine biosynthesis is halted by repression and feed-back inhibition, biosynthesis of putrescine occurs in two steps from arginine 1) by arginine decarboxylase (which is located in the periplasm so that the arginine that flows into polyamines never mixes with the intracellular pool of that amino acid) and then 2) by agmatinase which produces urea along with putrescine--the only urea-producing reaction in E. coli.
Review: Charlier, D. and N. Glansdorff (2004) "Biosynthesis of Arginine and Polyamines." EcoSal 126.96.36.199 [ECOSAL]
Subpathways: putrescine biosynthesis I, putrescine biosynthesis III, spermidine biosynthesis I, aminopropylcadaverine biosynthesis, superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis I, L-arginine biosynthesis I (via L-ornithine), L-ornithine biosynthesis I
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Anderson75a: Anderson PM, Carlson JD (1975). "Reversible reaction of cyanate with a reactive sulfhydryl group at the glutamine binding site of carbamyl phosphate synthetase." Biochemistry 1975;14(16);3688-94. PMID: 240389
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Applebaum75: Applebaum D, Sabo DL, Fischer EH, Morris DR (1975). "Biodegradative ornithine decarboxylase of Escherichia coli. Purification, properties, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site." Biochemistry 1975;14(16);3675-81. PMID: 240388
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Auger89: Auger EA, Redding KE, Plumb T, Childs LC, Meng SY, Bennett GN (1989). "Construction of lac fusions to the inducible arginine- and lysine decarboxylase genes of Escherichia coli K12." Mol Microbiol 3(5);609-20. PMID: 2527331
Baich62: Baich A, Vogel HJ (1962). "N-Acetyl-gamma-Ilutamokinase and N-acetylglutamic gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase: repressible enzymes of arginine synthesis in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 7;491-6. PMID: 13863980
Bartsch90a: Bartsch K, von Johnn-Marteville A, Schulz A (1990). "Molecular analysis of two genes of the Escherichia coli gab cluster: nucleotide sequence of the glutamate:succinic semialdehyde transaminase gene (gabT) and characterization of the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (gabD)." J Bacteriol 1990;172(12);7035-42. PMID: 2254272
Becker01: Becker G, Hengge-Aronis R (2001). "What makes an Escherichia coli promoter sigma(S) dependent? Role of the -13/-14 nucleotide promoter positions and region 2.5 of sigma(S)." Mol Microbiol 39(5);1153-65. PMID: 11251833
Beretskene80: Beretskene SIa, Bruzgulis PA, Ragavichus AB (1980). "[Conditions of the synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by Escherichia coli MRE 600]." Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 16(3);351-5. PMID: 7001435
Bhaumik04: Bhaumik P, Koski MK, Bergmann U, Wierenga RK (2004). "Structure determination and refinement at 2.44 A resolution of argininosuccinate lyase from Escherichia coli." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 60(Pt 11);1964-70. PMID: 15502303
Billheimer76: Billheimer JT, Carnevale HN, Leisinger T, Eckhardt T, Jones EE (1976). "Ornithine delta-transaminase activity in Escherichia coli: its identity with acetylornithine delta-transaminase." J Bacteriol 127(3);1315-23. PMID: 8431
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