Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: L-arginine degradation II (AST pathway)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-arginine degradation II (AST pathway)

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for L-arginine degradation II (AST pathway)

Synonyms: L-arginine succinyltransferase pathway, AST pathway, ammonia-producing L-arginine catabolic pathway, L-arginine catabolism

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmino Acids DegradationProteinogenic Amino Acids DegradationL-arginine Degradation

This pathway (called the AST pathway for its crucial enzyme, arginine succinyltransferase) is the major arginine-degrading pathway found in E. coli. It yields 2 molecules of ammonia and 2 of glutamate and can satisfy E. coli's total nitrogen requirement, but not its total carbon requirement. This pathway does, however, permit other organisms, for example Klebsiella aerogenes, to utilize arginine as a total source of carbon. With the exception of succinylarginine dihydrolase and succinylornithine transaminase, enzymes of this pathway from E. coli have not been characterized beyond assaying crude extracts. Succinylornithine transaminase gained special attention and was originally designated as argM because is can substitute for acetylornithine transaminase (encoded by argD) in the biosynthesis of arginine. The substrates of the two enzymes differ only in ornithine's being acetylated in the biosynthetic pathway and succinylated in the degradative pathway.

Reviews: Reitzer, L. (2005) "Catabolism of Amino Acids and Related Compounds." EcoSal 3.4.7 [ECOSAL], [Cunin86]

Variants: L-arginine degradation III (arginine decarboxylase/agmatinase pathway), superpathway of L-arginine and L-ornithine degradation, superpathway of L-arginine, putrescine, and 4-aminobutanoate degradation

Revised 10-Oct-2005 by Caspi R, SRI International
Revised 09-May-2006 by Ingraham JL, UC Davis
Last-Curated 17-Oct-2011 by Keseler I, SRI International


Cunin86: Cunin R, Glansdorff N, Pierard A, Stalon V (1986). "Biosynthesis and metabolism of arginine in bacteria." Microbiol Rev 1986;50(3);314-52. PMID: 3534538

ECOSAL: "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Schneider98: Schneider BL, Kiupakis AK, Reitzer LJ (1998). "Arginine catabolism and the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(16);4278-86. PMID: 9696779

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BacaDeLancey99: Baca-DeLancey RR, South MM, Ding X, Rather PN (1999). "Escherichia coli genes regulated by cell-to-cell signaling." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(8);4610-4. PMID: 10200310

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Fraley98: Fraley CD, Kim JH, McCann MP, Matin A (1998). "The Escherichia coli starvation gene cstC is involved in amino acid catabolism." J Bacteriol 1998;180(16);4287-90. PMID: 9696780

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Kabir04: Kabir MS, Sagara T, Oshima T, Kawagoe Y, Mori H, Tsunedomi R, Yamada M (2004). "Effects of mutations in the rpoS gene on cell viability and global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Escherichia coli." Microbiology 150(Pt 8);2543-53. PMID: 15289551

Kiupakis02: Kiupakis AK, Reitzer L (2002). "ArgR-independent induction and ArgR-dependent superinduction of the astCADBE operon in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 184(11);2940-50. PMID: 12003934

Kuznetsova05: Kuznetsova E, Proudfoot M, Sanders SA, Reinking J, Savchenko A, Arrowsmith CH, Edwards AM, Yakunin AF (2005). "Enzyme genomics: Application of general enzymatic screens to discover new enzymes." FEMS Microbiol Rev 29(2);263-79. PMID: 15808744

Lal14: Lal PB, Schneider BL, Vu K, Reitzer L (2014). "The redundant aminotransferases in lysine and arginine synthesis and the extent of aminotransferase redundancy in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 94(4);843-56. PMID: 25243376

Newman13: Newman J, Seabrook S, Surjadi R, Williams CC, Lucent D, Wilding M, Scott C, Peat TS (2013). "Determination of the Structure of the Catabolic N-Succinylornithine Transaminase (AstC) from Escherichia coli." PLoS One 8(3);e58298. PMID: 23484010

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Reyes11: Reyes LH, Almario MP, Kao KC (2011). "Genomic library screens for genes involved in n-butanol tolerance in Escherichia coli." PLoS One 6(3);e17678. PMID: 21408113

Shirai03: Shirai H, Mizuguchi K (2003). "Prediction of the structure and function of AstA and AstB, the first two enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway of arginine catabolism." FEBS Lett 555(3);505-10. PMID: 14675764

Stancik02: Stancik LM, Stancik DM, Schmidt B, Barnhart DM, Yoncheva YN, Slonczewski JL (2002). "pH-dependent expression of periplasmic proteins and amino acid catabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 184(15);4246-58. PMID: 12107143

Tocilj05: Tocilj A, Schrag JD, Li Y, Schneider BL, Reitzer L, Matte A, Cygler M (2005). "Crystal structure of N-succinylarginine dihydrolase AstB, bound to substrate and product, an enzyme from the arginine catabolic pathway of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 280(16);15800-8. PMID: 15703173

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Wang01a: Wang D, Ding X, Rather PN (2001). "Indole can act as an extracellular signal in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 183(14);4210-6. PMID: 11418561

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Mon May 2, 2016, biocyc11.