If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: L-lysine and L-diaminopimelate biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Biosynthesis → L-lysine Biosynthesis|
A metabolic connection joins synthesis of an amino acid, lysine, to synthesis of cell wall material. Diaminopimelate is a precursor both for lysine and for cell wall components. The synthesis of lysine, methionine and threonine share two reactions at the start of the three pathways, the reactions converting L-aspartate to L-aspartate semialdehyde. The first reaction, aspartate kinase, is carried out by three isozymes, one specific for synthesis of each end product amino acid. Each of the three aspartate kinase isozymes is regulated by its corresponding end product amino acid.
Adkins13: Adkins J, Jordan J, Nielsen DR (2013). "Engineering Escherichia coli for renewable production of the 5-carbon polyamide building-blocks 5-aminovalerate and glutarate." Biotechnol Bioeng 110(6);1726-34. PMID: 23296991
Alvarez04: Alvarez E, Ramon F, Magan C, Diez E (2004). "L-cystine inhibits aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase by covalently binding to the essential 135Cys of the enzyme." Biochim Biophys Acta 1696(1);23-9. PMID: 14726201
Angeles90: Angeles TS, Viola RE (1990). "The kinetic mechanisms of the bifunctional enzyme aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase I from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 283(1);96-101. PMID: 2241177
Antia57: Antia M, Hoare DS, Work E (1957). "The stereoisomers of alpha epsilon-diaminopimelic acid. III. Properties and distribution of diaminopimelic acid racemase, an enzyme causing interconversion of the LL and meso isomers." Biochem J 65(3);448-59. PMID: 13412646
Ataide07: Ataide SF, Wilson SN, Dang S, Rogers TE, Roy B, Banerjee R, Henkin TM, Ibba M (2007). "Mechanisms of resistance to an amino acid antibiotic that targets translation." ACS Chem Biol 2(12);819-27. PMID: 18154269
Baumann88: Baumann RJ, Bohme EH, Wiseman JS, Vaal M, Nichols JS (1988). "Inhibition of Escherichia coli growth and diaminopimelic acid epimerase by 3-chlorodiaminopimelic acid." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32(8);1119-23. PMID: 3056252
Bearer78: Bearer CF, Neet KE (1978). "Threonine inhibition of the aspartokinase--homoserine dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli. A slow transient and cooperativity of inhibition of the aspartokinase activity." Biochemistry 1978;17(17);3523-30. PMID: 28752
Berges86: Berges DA, DeWolf WE, Dunn GL, Newman DJ, Schmidt SJ, Taggart JJ, Gilvarg C (1986). "Studies on the active site of succinyl-CoA:tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase. Characterization using analogs of tetrahydrodipicolinate." J Biol Chem 261(14);6160-7. PMID: 3700390
Biellmann80: Biellmann JF, Eid P, Hirth C (1980). "Affinity labeling of the Escherichia coli aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase with an alkylating coenzyme analogue. Half-site reactivity and competition with the substrate alkylating analogue." Eur J Biochem 1980;104(1);65-9. PMID: 6102911
Biellmann80a: Biellmann JF, Eid P, Hirth C, Jornvall H (1980). "Aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and general properties." Eur J Biochem 1980;104(1);53-8. PMID: 6102909
Billheimer79: Billheimer JT, Shen MY, Carnevale HN, Horton HR, Jones EE (1979). "Isolation and characterization of acetylornithine delta-transaminase of wild-type Escherichia coli W. Comparison with arginine-inducible acetylornithine delta-transaminase." Arch Biochem Biophys 1979;195(2);401-13. PMID: 112925
Blickling97: Blickling S, Renner C, Laber B, Pohlenz HD, Holak TA, Huber R (1997). "Reaction mechanism of Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase investigated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy." Biochemistry 36(1);24-33. PMID: 8993314
Borthwick95: Borthwick EB, Connell SJ, Tudor DW, Robins DJ, Shneier A, Abell C, Coggins JR (1995). "Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase: characterization of the imine intermediate and the product of bromopyruvate treatment by electrospray mass spectrometry." Biochem J 305 ( Pt 2);521-4. PMID: 7832769
Boughton12: Boughton BA, Dobson RC, Hutton CA (2012). "The crystal structure of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Escherichia coli with bound pyruvate and succinic acid semialdehyde: unambiguous resolution of the stereochemistry of the condensation product." Proteins 80(8);2117-22. PMID: 22552955
Boughton12a: Boughton BA, Hor L, Gerrard JA, Hutton CA (2012). "1,3-Phenylene bis(ketoacid) derivatives as inhibitors of Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase." Bioorg Med Chem 20(7);2419-26. PMID: 22386717
Bouvier08: Bouvier J, Stragier P, Morales V, Remy E, Gutierrez C (2008). "Lysine represses transcription of the Escherichia coli dapB gene by preventing its activation by the ArgP activator." J Bacteriol 190(15);5224-9. PMID: 18502871
Bouvier92: Bouvier J, Richaud C, Higgins W, Bogler O, Stragier P (1992). "Cloning, characterization, and expression of the dapE gene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1992;174(16);5265-71. PMID: 1644752
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