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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: L-lysine biosynthesis I
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-lysine biosynthesis I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for L-lysine biosynthesis I

Synonyms: L-lysine and L-diaminopimelate biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-lysine Biosynthesis

A metabolic connection joins synthesis of an amino acid, lysine, to synthesis of cell wall material. Diaminopimelate is a precursor both for lysine and for cell wall components. The synthesis of lysine, methionine and threonine share two reactions at the start of the three pathways, the reactions converting L-aspartate to L-aspartate semialdehyde. The first reaction, aspartate kinase, is carried out by three isozymes, one specific for synthesis of each end product amino acid. Each of the three aspartate kinase isozymes is regulated by its corresponding end product amino acid.

Superpathways: superpathway of L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine biosynthesis I, aspartate superpathway

Created 08-Dec-1993 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 21-Apr-2006 by Caspi R, SRI International

References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Acord04: Acord J, Masters M (2004). "Expression from the Escherichia coli dapA promoter is regulated by intracellular levels of diaminopimelic acid." FEMS Microbiol Lett 235(1);131-7. PMID: 15158272

Adkins13: Adkins J, Jordan J, Nielsen DR (2013). "Engineering Escherichia coli for renewable production of the 5-carbon polyamide building-blocks 5-aminovalerate and glutarate." Biotechnol Bioeng 110(6);1726-34. PMID: 23296991

Alvarez04: Alvarez E, Ramon F, Magan C, Diez E (2004). "L-cystine inhibits aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase by covalently binding to the essential 135Cys of the enzyme." Biochim Biophys Acta 1696(1);23-9. PMID: 14726201

Angeles90: Angeles TS, Viola RE (1990). "The kinetic mechanisms of the bifunctional enzyme aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase I from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 283(1);96-101. PMID: 2241177

Antia57: Antia M, Hoare DS, Work E (1957). "The stereoisomers of alpha epsilon-diaminopimelic acid. III. Properties and distribution of diaminopimelic acid racemase, an enzyme causing interconversion of the LL and meso isomers." Biochem J 65(3);448-59. PMID: 13412646

Ataide07: Ataide SF, Wilson SN, Dang S, Rogers TE, Roy B, Banerjee R, Henkin TM, Ibba M (2007). "Mechanisms of resistance to an amino acid antibiotic that targets translation." ACS Chem Biol 2(12);819-27. PMID: 18154269

Baumann88: Baumann RJ, Bohme EH, Wiseman JS, Vaal M, Nichols JS (1988). "Inhibition of Escherichia coli growth and diaminopimelic acid epimerase by 3-chlorodiaminopimelic acid." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32(8);1119-23. PMID: 3056252

Bearer78: Bearer CF, Neet KE (1978). "Threonine inhibition of the aspartokinase--homoserine dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli. A slow transient and cooperativity of inhibition of the aspartokinase activity." Biochemistry 1978;17(17);3523-30. PMID: 28752

Berg74: Berg CM, Rossi JJ (1974). "Proline excretion and indirect suppression in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium." J Bacteriol 118(3);928-34. PMID: 4598010

Berges86: Berges DA, DeWolf WE, Dunn GL, Newman DJ, Schmidt SJ, Taggart JJ, Gilvarg C (1986). "Studies on the active site of succinyl-CoA:tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase. Characterization using analogs of tetrahydrodipicolinate." J Biol Chem 261(14);6160-7. PMID: 3700390

Biellmann80: Biellmann JF, Eid P, Hirth C (1980). "Affinity labeling of the Escherichia coli aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase with an alkylating coenzyme analogue. Half-site reactivity and competition with the substrate alkylating analogue." Eur J Biochem 1980;104(1);65-9. PMID: 6102911

Biellmann80a: Biellmann JF, Eid P, Hirth C, Jornvall H (1980). "Aspartate-beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and general properties." Eur J Biochem 1980;104(1);53-8. PMID: 6102909

Billheimer79: Billheimer JT, Shen MY, Carnevale HN, Horton HR, Jones EE (1979). "Isolation and characterization of acetylornithine delta-transaminase of wild-type Escherichia coli W. Comparison with arginine-inducible acetylornithine delta-transaminase." Arch Biochem Biophys 1979;195(2);401-13. PMID: 112925

Blickling97: Blickling S, Renner C, Laber B, Pohlenz HD, Holak TA, Huber R (1997). "Reaction mechanism of Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase investigated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy." Biochemistry 36(1);24-33. PMID: 8993314

Borthwick95: Borthwick EB, Connell SJ, Tudor DW, Robins DJ, Shneier A, Abell C, Coggins JR (1995). "Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase: characterization of the imine intermediate and the product of bromopyruvate treatment by electrospray mass spectrometry." Biochem J 305 ( Pt 2);521-4. PMID: 7832769

Boughton12: Boughton BA, Dobson RC, Hutton CA (2012). "The crystal structure of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Escherichia coli with bound pyruvate and succinic acid semialdehyde: unambiguous resolution of the stereochemistry of the condensation product." Proteins 80(8);2117-22. PMID: 22552955

Boughton12a: Boughton BA, Hor L, Gerrard JA, Hutton CA (2012). "1,3-Phenylene bis(ketoacid) derivatives as inhibitors of Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase." Bioorg Med Chem 20(7);2419-26. PMID: 22386717

Bouvier08: Bouvier J, Stragier P, Morales V, Remy E, Gutierrez C (2008). "Lysine represses transcription of the Escherichia coli dapB gene by preventing its activation by the ArgP activator." J Bacteriol 190(15);5224-9. PMID: 18502871

Bouvier84: Bouvier J, Richaud C, Richaud F, Patte JC, Stragier P (1984). "Nucleotide sequence and expression of the Escherichia coli dapB gene." J Biol Chem 1984;259(23);14829-34. PMID: 6094578

Bouvier92: Bouvier J, Richaud C, Higgins W, Bogler O, Stragier P (1992). "Cloning, characterization, and expression of the dapE gene of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1992;174(16);5265-71. PMID: 1644752

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Fri Apr 29, 2016, biocyc14.