Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: D-galacturonate degradation I

Pathway diagram: D-galacturonate degradation I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for D-galacturonate degradation I

Synonyms: D-galacturonate catabolism, D-galacturonate degradation

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation Carboxylates Degradation Sugar Acids Degradation D-Galacturonate Degradation
Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation Secondary Metabolites Degradation Sugar Derivatives Degradation Sugar Acids Degradation D-Galacturonate Degradation

E. coli can use the hexuronate D-galacturonate as the sole sources of carbon for growth. The enzymes of this pathway were first described in a series of publications by Ashwell et al. [Ashwell58, Ashwell60, Hickman60, Smiley60, Cynkin60].

The initial step in the degradation of D-galacturonate is its isomerization to D-tagaturonate by D-galacturonate isomerase, an enzyme which can carry out the analogous function in the superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation pathway. D-tagaturonate then undergoes an NADH-dependent reduction to D-altronate by altronate oxidoreductase. D-altronate dehydratase subsequently catalyzes dehydration to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. At this point, the superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation and D-galacturonate degradation I pathways converge, and a common enzyme, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate, which enters central metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway I.

Review: Mandrand-Berthelot, M.-A., Condemine, G., and Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N., EcoSal Module 3.4.2 [ECOSAL]

Superpathways: superpathway of hexuronide and hexuronate degradation

Created 09-Sep-1994 by Riley M , Marine Biological Laboratory
Last-Curated ? 01-Feb-2008 by Keseler I , SRI International


Ashwell58: Ashwell A, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1958). "A new pathway of uronic acid metabolism." Biochim Biophys Acta 30(1);186-7. PMID: 13584413

Ashwell60: Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid isomerase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1960;235(6):1559-1565. PMID: 13794771

Cynkin60: Cynkin MA, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. IV. Purification and properties of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconokinase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1576-9. PMID: 13813474

ECOSAL: "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Hickman60: Hickman J, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1566-70. PMID: 14401695

Smiley60: Smiley JD, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. III. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1571-5. PMID: 13831814

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Blanco83: Blanco C, Mata-Gilsinger M, Ritzenthaler P (1983). "Construction of hybrid plasmids containing the Escherichia coli uxaB gene: analysis of its regulation and direction of transcription." J Bacteriol 153(2);747-55. PMID: 6296052

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dreyer87: Dreyer JL (1987). "The role of iron in the activation of mannonic and altronic acid hydratases, two Fe-requiring hydro-lyases." Eur J Biochem 166(3);623-30. PMID: 3038546

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

HugouvieuxCotte81: Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Robert-Baudouy J (1981). "Isolation of fusions between the lac genes and several genes of the exu regulon: analysis of their regulation, determination of the transcription direction of the uxaC-uxaA operon, in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 182(2);279-87. PMID: 7026975

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Linster04: Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E (2004). "A spectrophotometric assay of D-glucuronate based on Escherichia coli uronate isomerase and mannonate dehydrogenase." Protein Expr Purif 37(2);352-60. PMID: 15358357

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Novel73: Novel G, Stoeber F (1973). "[Individuality of D glucuronate-ketol isomerase from K 12 Escherichia coli]." Biochimie 55(9);1057-70. PMID: 4594308

Portalier72: Portalier RC, Stoeber FR (1972). "[D-altronate: NAD-oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli K12. Purification, properties, and specificity]." Eur J Biochem 1972;26(1);50-61. PMID: 4402917

Portalier72c: Portalier RC, Stoeber FR (1972). "[Colorimetric determinations of aldonate oxidoreductases of Escherichia coli K 12: applications]." Biochim Biophys Acta 289(1);19-27. PMID: 4564054

Portalier72d: Portalier RC (1972). "[D-altronate: NAD-oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli K12. Kinetic studies]." Eur J Biochem 1972;30(2);211-9. PMID: 4351434

Portalier74: Portalier RC, Robert-Baudouy JM, Nemoz GM (1974). "[Studies of mutations in the uronic isomerase and altronic oxidoreductase structural genes of Escherichia coli K 12 (author's transl)]." Mol Gen Genet 128(4);301-19. PMID: 4594010

Portalier80: Portalier R, Robert-Baudouy J, Stoeber F (1980). "Regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 hexuronate system genes: exu regulon." J Bacteriol 143(3);1095-107. PMID: 6997263

Portalier82: Portalier R, Stoeber F (1982). "D-Mannonate and D-altronate-NAD dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 89 Pt D;210-8. PMID: 6755169

Pouyssegur71: Pouyssegur J, Stoeber F (1971). "[Study of the common degradative pathway of hexuronates in Escherichia coli K 12. Purification, properties and individuality of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconnokinase]." Biochimie 53(6);771-81. PMID: 4944816

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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