If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: D-galacturonate catabolism, D-galacturonate degradation
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Carboxylates Degradation → Sugar Acids Degradation → D-Galacturonate Degradation|
|Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Secondary Metabolites Degradation → Sugar Derivatives Degradation → Sugar Acids Degradation → D-Galacturonate Degradation|
E. coli can use the hexuronate D-galacturonate as the sole sources of carbon for growth. The enzymes of this pathway were first described in a series of publications by Ashwell et al. [Ashwell58, Ashwell60, Hickman60, Smiley60, Cynkin60].
The initial step in the degradation of D-galacturonate is its isomerization to D-tagaturonate by D-galacturonate isomerase, an enzyme which can carry out the analogous function in the superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation pathway. D-tagaturonate then undergoes an NADH-dependent reduction to D-altronate by altronate oxidoreductase. D-altronate dehydratase subsequently catalyzes dehydration to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. At this point, the superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation and D-galacturonate degradation I pathways converge, and a common enzyme, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate, which enters central metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway I.
Review: Mandrand-Berthelot, M.-A., Condemine, G., and Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N., EcoSal Module 3.4.2 [ECOSAL]
Superpathways: superpathway of hexuronide and hexuronate degradation
Ashwell60: Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid isomerase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1960;235(6):1559-1565. PMID: 13794771
Cynkin60: Cynkin MA, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. IV. Purification and properties of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconokinase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1576-9. PMID: 13813474
Hickman60: Hickman J, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1566-70. PMID: 14401695
Smiley60: Smiley JD, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. III. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1571-5. PMID: 13831814
Blanco83: Blanco C, Mata-Gilsinger M, Ritzenthaler P (1983). "Construction of hybrid plasmids containing the Escherichia coli uxaB gene: analysis of its regulation and direction of transcription." J Bacteriol 153(2);747-55. PMID: 6296052
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
HugouvieuxCotte81: Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Robert-Baudouy J (1981). "Isolation of fusions between the lac genes and several genes of the exu regulon: analysis of their regulation, determination of the transcription direction of the uxaC-uxaA operon, in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 182(2);279-87. PMID: 7026975
Linster04: Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E (2004). "A spectrophotometric assay of D-glucuronate based on Escherichia coli uronate isomerase and mannonate dehydrogenase." Protein Expr Purif 37(2);352-60. PMID: 15358357
LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532
Portalier74: Portalier RC, Robert-Baudouy JM, Nemoz GM (1974). "[Studies of mutations in the uronic isomerase and altronic oxidoreductase structural genes of Escherichia coli K 12 (author's transl)]." Mol Gen Genet 128(4);301-19. PMID: 4594010
Pouyssegur71a: Pouyssegur J, Stoeber F (1971). "[Study of the common degradative pathway of hexuronates in Escherichia coli K 12. Purification, properties and individuality of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconnokinase]." Biochimie 53(6);771-81. PMID: 4944816
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